What’s New in Essentials of Oceanography, 9th Edition?

Publication Date: February 2007; © 2008

A. P. Trujillo

Major improvements to Essentials of Oceanography, 9th Edition include:

bulletThe "Key Questions" at the beginning of each chapter are tied directly to the highlighted "Concept Statements" imbedded within the text and serve to focus attention on key concepts
bulletIcons in the text that link to a suite of new geoscience animations, which are state-of-the-art computer animations that have been created by Al Trujillo and a panel of geoscience educators to help students visualize some of the most challenging oceanographic concepts
bulletNew geoscience animations that have been specifically designed for this edition are:
bullet Formation of Seamounts/Tablemounts and Stages of Coral Reef Development
bullet How Calcareous Ooze Can Be Found Beneath the Calcite Compensation Depth (CCD)
bullet Ekman Spiral and Coastal Upwelling/Downwelling
bullet Interference Patterns in Waves
bullet The Deep Scattering Layer (DSL)
bulletUpdating of information throughout the text to include some of the most recent developments in oceanography such as the recent Indian Ocean tsunamis and Hurricanes Katrina, Rita, and Wilma
bulletFeature boxes—several of them new—are organized around the following three themes:
  1. Historical Features: these boxes focus on historical developments in oceanography that tie into chapter topics
  2. Research Methods in Oceanography: these boxes highlight how oceanographic knowledge is obtained
  3. Oceans and People: these boxes illustrate the interaction of humans and the ocean environment
bulletAddition of several new tables that better organize and summarize important data
bulletAddition of an extensive array of updated photos and illustrations to improve the illustration package and make the figures more consistent throughout
bulletExpanded end-of-chapter "Review Exercises" and "Critical Thinking Questions" sections to help students test their knowledge
bulletAll text in the chapters has been thoroughly reviewed and edited in a continued effort to refine the style and clarity of the writing

Specific chapter-by-chapter changes in Essentials of Oceanography, 9th Edition:

Chapter 1: Introduction to Planet "Earth"

bulletThe origin of life on Earth has been updated based on the latest research findings
bulletInclusion of new information about the status of Pluto as a dwarf planet
bulletInformation about the Protoearth has been updated
bulletInformation about the composition of Earth’s atmosphere has been updated, including a new graph of Earth’s oxygen through time
bulletThe geologic timescale has been updated, including the new Ediacaran Period of the Precambrian

Chapter 2: Plate Tectonics and the Ocean Floor

bulletThe Indian Plate and the Australian Plate have been delineated in all figures based on findings that they are 2 separate plates
bulletAddition of a new box on the NEPTUNE project, which features the establishment of a sea floor observatory on the Juan de Fuca plate
bulletUpdated information on mantle plumes and hotspots
bulletThe section on paleoceanography has been expanded and moved to Chapter 4

Chapter 3: Marine Provinces

bulletAddition of a new box on the 2005 crash of the submarine USS San Francisco, which ran into an uncharted seamount
bulletThe table on recent oceanographic satellite missions has been updated
bulletAdditional information on continental borderlands, submarine canyons, turbidite deposits, and hydrothermal vents

Chapter 4: Marine Sediments

bulletThe section on paleoceanography has been expanded and moved from Chapter 2
bulletA new section and map illustrating the worldwide thickness of marine sediments
bulletThe section on sediment maturity has been eliminated
bulletAddition of details about the Calcite Compensation Depth (CCD) and its affect on the distribution of calcite

Chapter 5: Water and Seawater

bulletAddition of a new table listing the heat capacity of some common substances
bulletAn improved image of the pH scale showing the pH of common substances
bulletA new section on the recent increase of ocean acidity accompanied by a new graph showing historical and projected pH and dissolved carbon dioxide

Chapter 6: Air–Sea Interaction

bulletInclusion of a new box on the record-breaking 2005 Atlantic hurricane season, featuring information about hurricanes Katrina, Rita, and Wilma
bulletThe section on the greenhouse effect has been updated, including new graphs
bulletAddition of information about Arctic sea ice decline, including new before and after images
bulletAddition of a new section on wind power including information about offshore wind farms

Chapter 7: Ocean Circulation

bulletAddition of a new section within measuring ocean currents about the Argo float program
bulletReorganization of the discussion of ocean current patterns in each ocean basin
bulletExpanded coverage of the Indian Ocean monsoons
bulletAddition of a new section on power from currents

Chapter 8: Waves and Water Dynamics

bulletAddition of a new section and box featuring the two recent Indian Ocean tsunami, one of which occurred on December 26, 2004 (300,000 deaths), and the other that occurred on July 17, 2006 (300 deaths)
bulletInclusion of information about the DART tsunami warning system
bulletAdditional information about wave refraction and reflection, including new images

Chapter 9: Tides

bulletImproved description of the Earth–Moon barycenter
bulletAddition of a new image showing tidal bore surfing
bulletInclusion of updated information about generation of tidal power

Chapter 10: The Coast: Beaches and Shoreline Processes

bulletAddition of a new SSA clarifying why the longshore current moves southward along the East Coast of the U.S.
bulletInclusion of updated information about sea level rise
bulletInclusion of a new figure showing sea level rise measured by satellite altimetry

Chapter 11: The Coastal Ocean

bulletAddition of new information about how coastal wetlands protect coastlines from tsunami
bulletAddition of new satellite images showing coastal wetland loss in Louisiana
bulletInclusion of updated information about plastics in the ocean

Chapter 12: Marine Life and the Marine Environment

bulletAddition of a new section with a working definition of life
bulletInclusion of updated information on the tree of life, including a new figure
bulletThe section on bioluminescence in marine organisms has been moved to Chapter 14

Chapter 13: Biological Productivity and Energy Transfer

bulletAddition of a new section on nutrients that limit productivity, including the Redfield ratio
bulletInclusion of updated information on photosynthetic bacteria
bulletExpanded coverage about marine fisheries

Chapter 14: Animals of the Pelagic Environment

bulletThe section on bioluminescence in marine organisms has been moved from Chapter 12
bulletThe section "How are Marine Organisms Able to Stay Above the Ocean Floor?" has been reorganized
bulletAddition of 2 new "Students Sometimes Ask…" questions about (1) military sonar causing recent whale strandings and (2) whale copulation

Chapter 15: Animals of the Benthic Environment

bulletAddition of a new section on the worldwide decline of coral reefs
bulletAddition of new "Students Sometimes Ask…" question about deep-water coral
bulletExpanded coverage on microbes in the deep biosphere


bulletInclusion of new information in Appendix V "Careers in Oceanography" about one of Al Trujillo’s former students, Joseph Fell-McDonald, ranger for the State of Hawaii's Department of Land and Natural Resources, Division of Forestry and Wildlife, Natural Area Reserve System, Maui, Hawaii

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