Movements in Late Nineteenth Century
Art (Art 100)
- Name: Term used to describe a certain type of art and
literature in mid-19th century France.
- Who: Gustave Courbet, Édouard Manet, Rosa Bonheur,
Gustave Caillebotte, Honoré Daumier, Thomas Eakins, and Winslow
- When: 1845-1880.
- Where: Western Europe (primarily France) and the United
- What: Movement in art and literature that rejected the
subjective, emotional, exotic characteristics of Romanticism. Instead,
artists and writers concentrated on observable, contemporary reality.
- Subject Matter: Down-to-earth, everyday subjects: landscapes;
peasants; ordinary, working-class people; observable, contemporary life.
Only the visible world is shown; scenes centering on mythology, history
or religion were avoided.
- Style: Emphasis on naturalism, that is, the accurate
depiction of nature without it being overly romanticized or sentimentalized.
Ordinary people shown with same dignity previously bestowed on images of
kings, saints and aristocrats. In a sense, Realist painters tried to do
away with a personal, artistic "style" in order to make their
paintings more "truthful."
- Janson and Kissick Example: COURBET, The Stone Breakers,
- Influenced by: Caravaggio, Rembrandt, Velázquez,
Zurburan, Louis Le Nain, Charles Baudelaire (a 19th century writer who
called for an art that would use the "heroism of modern life"
as its subject), European revolutions of 1848, Socialism, and early photography.
- Will influence: Pre-Raphaelites, Impressionism, and American
- Name: The derogatory term was coined by critic Louis
Leroy of the Parisian journal Le Charivari in response to the unfinished
quality of Monet's Impression: Sunrise of 1872 (exhibited at the
first Impressionist exhibition in 1874). For Leroy, the work appeared more
like an "impression" rather than a finished, factual painting.
The artists came to like this term and adopt it for themselves.
- Who: Claude Monet, Auguste Renoir, Édouard Manet
(who never exhibited with the Impressionists), Edgar Degas, Mary Cassatt,
Berthe Morisot, Camille Pissarro, Auguste Rodin, and Alfred Sisley.
- When: 1874-1886 (8 group exhibitions are held between
- Where: France.
- What: The Impressionists, who initially exhibited as
the "Society of Painters, Etchers and Engravers," formed in opposition
to the government-sponsored Salon. Artists were concerned with the transient
effects of light and atmosphere on natural or man-made objects. The fragmented,
painterly brushwork of Impressionism makes it a forerunner of the modern
notion that a painting is an art object not subject to the constraints
of nature. The group's aims were best represented by painters, though some
sculptors (Rodin, Degas, Renoir) did manage to employ their concerns with
light and reflection onto media other than paint and canvas. Toward the
end, many of the Impressionists pursued separate paths with respect to
subject matter and style. Impressionism's "joy of life" attitude
makes it one of the most loved and popular movements in modern art.
- Subject Matter: Contemporary life: sunny landscapes (painted
out-of-doors rather than in a studio), cityscapes, portraits, and leisure
scenes (dance halls, opera, ballet, bars, picnics, etc.).
- Style: Bright colors (in contrast to dark, muted tones
of Academic paintings) applied in visible, sketchy strokes. These strokes
were meant to merge in the viewer's eyes, not the artist's palette. Shadows
were painted with color, not black as before. Glazes and heavy varnishes
were hardly ever used.
- Janson Example: RENOIR, Le Moulin de la Galette,
- Kissick Example: MONET, Impression: Sunrise, 1872.
- Influenced by: Delacroix, Barbizon School, Manet, Realism,
photography, and Japanese prints.
- Will influence: Post-Impressionists, Fauves, and to some
extent most other late 19th century and early 20th century movements.
- Name: Term, which refers to the period after Impressionism,
was coined by the British art critic Roger Fry for his 1910 London exhibition
"Manet and the Post-Impressionists." The term was invented after
nearly all its practitioners had died.
- Who: Paul Cézanne, Georges Seurat, Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec,
Vincent van Gogh, and Paul Gauguin.
- When: 1880s through early 1890s.
- Where: France.
- What: Post-Impressionists weren't reacting against Impressionism,
they were trying to take the ideas of Impressionism further. They also
were not interested in the Impressionist's preoccupation with naturalism
and momentary effects. Still, nearly all the Post-Impressionists passed
through an Impressionist phase.
- Subject Matter Landscapes, portraits, still lifes, exotic
locations, interiors, etc.
- Style: Since Post-Impressionism refers to a time (the
period after Impressionism) and not a style, there are many styles occurring
simultaneously. The styles of Post-Impressionists reflected the individual
artists' personal emotions and world views, rather than a naturalistic
approach to painting.
- Janson Example: VAN GOGH, Wheat Field and Cypress
- Kissick Example: GAUGUIN, The Vision After the Sermon,
- Influenced by: Impressionism.
- Will influence: Symbolism, Nabis, Art Nouveau, Fauvism,
Cubism, and German Expressionism.