Gabriele Falloppio (1523-1562)
Italian surgeon and anatomist

Falloppio was one of the great anatomists of his time. He was the first to accurately describe the tubes leading from the ovary to the uterus (the "trumpets of the uterus" as he called them). They were subsequently named the "Fallopian tubes" in his honor, although he failed to grasp their function. He asserted the existence of the hymen in virgins, was first to describe the clitoris, coined the word vagina, and disproved the popular notion that the penis entered the uterus during intercourse. He also developed a linen sheath for use in preventing transmission of syphilis. In reporting the results of perhaps the first clinical trial of condom efficacy Falloppio proclaimed: "I tried the experiment [the use of condoms] on 1,100 men, and I call immortal God to witness that not one of them was infected." 
His contraceptive was held on by a pink ribbon so that it would appeal to women.

He carried out investigations on the larynx, muscular action, respiration, and did seminal studies on bone ossification. He described the ethmoid bone, lacrimal duct, and placenta, and his description of the middle and inner ear includes the first clear account of the round and oval windows, the cochlea, the semicircular canals, and the scala vestibuli and tympani. With  Eustachi and Vesalius,  Falloppio was one of the three heroes of early anatomy. 

 Adapted from, and