A California Basketry Bibliography



























Abel-Vidor, Susan, Dot Brovarney, and Susan Billy

1996    Remember Your Relations: The Elsie Allen Baskets, Family, and Friends.  The Grace Hudson Museum, Ukiah, CA.

A beautiful homage to the legendary E. Allen.  Contains photos of her family, friends, and her baskets.  Outlines the relationships which existed between basketmakers throughout the Pomo community, and presents materials and photographs which are really welcomed.  The depth of the materials sets a new standard for explicating the lives and relationships in the basketmaker’s communities, and as usual, Susan Abel-Vidor and Dot Brovarney turned out a sterling product.  This work came to life because of collaboration between the Indian and museum communities, and Susan Billy must be applauded for supplying the vital link.

Aginsky, B. W. and E. G.

1971    Deep Valley.  Stein and Day, New York.

Allen, Elsie

1972   Pomo Basketmaking: A Supreme Art for the Weaver.  Naturegraphlishers, Inc., Happy Camp, CA.

A slim volume authored by world-reknown Pomo basketmaker, Elsie Allen.  She tells in her own words about her early life and how as a grown woman she perfected her art as a basketmaker, overcoming tribal and familial opposition.  She teaches basket starts for twine, coiled, baby and canoe baskets with incomparable style but only roughly describes materials preparation.  She includes many helpful and historic photos and a small section on design.  A most interesting point is that she corroborates Rozaire's theory that twined basketry is the oldest form in Northern California.

Anderson, Ada Woodruff

1899    The Last Industry of a Passing Race.  Harper's Bazaar Nov 11.

Anderson, Kat

1993    Native Americans as Ancient and Contemporary Cultivators.  In Before the Wilderness: Environmental Management by Native Californians.  Ballena Press, Menlo Park, CA.

Anderson, Kat and Gary Nabhan

1991    Gardeners in Eden.  Wilderness fall:27-30.

Apostol, Jane

1976    Saving Grace: Indian and Oriental Treasures were Exuberantly Collected by the Adventuresome Grace Nicholson.  Westways 68:22-24.

Arnold, J. E.

1990    A Review of Craft Specialization in the Prehistoric Channel-Islands, California by J. E. Clark.  American Antiquity Jan 55(1):193-194.

Balls, Edward K.

1962    Early Uses of California Plants.  University of California Press, Berkeley, CA.

A cursory inventory of the early uses of the plants of California including use as food and drink, fiber and basketry, medicine, hygiene, and dye gum and tobacco.

Barker, James M.

1995    Four Hands Weaving: The Basketry of San Diego's Indigenous Peoples.   Palomar College, Boehm Gallery, San Marcos, CA.

Barrett, Samuel Alfred (1875-1965)

1905    Basket Designs of the Pomo.  American Anthropologist Oct-Dec 7(4):648-653.

1908    Pomo Indian Basketry.  University of California Publications in Archaeology and Ethnology 7(3):133-299.

1910    The Material Culture of the Klamath Lake and Modoc Indians of Northeastern California and Southern Oregon.  University of California Publications in Archaeology and Ethnology 5:239-292.

Barrett, S.A., and E.W. Gifford (1887-1959)

1933    Miwok Material Culture: Indian Life in the Yosemite Region. Bulletin of Milwaukee Public Museum Mar 2(4).  Reprinted by the Yosemite Natural History Association.

A thorough listing of the material culture traits of the Miwok people, and the plants, animals and minerals which the Miwok exploited.  This is a fine example of the culture element distribution work done by anthropologists from the University of California in the mid-1930s.

Barrows, David Prescott (1873-1954)

1967 [1900]     The Ethno-Botany of the Coahuilla Indians of Southern California.  Malki Museum, Inc., Banning, CA.  Originally published by Chicago University Press, Chicago.

David Prescott Barrows strayed the farthest from normal material in his Ethno-Botany of the Coahuilla Indians published in 1900, but he, like other academics of his time was focused on plants as objects, not as a part of the cycle of life, and he certainly never suggested the level of plant maintenance necessary for production of withes suitable for basket making.  Careful reading of his sections on basketry and food production demonstrates that in all likelihood, Barrows seldom accompanied the women into the field to gather materials for basketmaking.  He said he had seen deergrass growing only once, but saw it many times in the homes of Cahuilla friends (42) He gives an adequate description of the actually stitching but glosses over gathering and preparation of materials.

Bates, Craig D.

1983    The Big Pomo Basket. American Indian Basketry. 3(3):12-14.

A reprint of a rare article from the California Indian Herald from February 1924 describes the manufacture of the largest Pomo basket known for the California Exposition of 1924.  Describes materials, makers, techniques, and motivation for production.  Compares the making of this basket with the making of other Pomo baskets made in the traditional way.

1984    How Collectors Have Influenced the Production and the Design of Baskets Among the People of California. Moccasin Tracks 9(5):4-9.

An excellent and insightful discussion of influences affecting changes in basket production in pre and proto historic times.  Beginning with a discussion of baskets made specifically for trade in aboriginal times, such as Washoe basketmakers traditionally providing Sierra Miwok people with winnowing trays, Bates traces changes due to Spanish, Russian and American collector's market demands, citing initial collecting beginning in the late 18th century when Spanish ships first plied the waters of the California coast. The introduction of native Californians to a cash economy caused a new rash of changes in which collector's demanded new forms, realistic designs, bright colors and nontraditional size.  Included in his discussion are basket color, form, function, design, and materials.

Bates, Craig D. and Brian Bibby

1984    Amanda Wilson: Maidu Weaver. American Indian Art Magazine 9(3):38-43.

Bates, Craig D. and Martha J. Lee

1990   Tradition and Innovation: A Basket History of the Indians of the Yosemite-Mono Lake Area.  The Yosemite Association, Yosemite National Park, CA.

This is perhaps the most important work yet produced which portrays the relationship between culture and basketry.  It explores traditional uses of basketry and the impact of collecting on the production of baskets.  Bates and Lee look at the collecting urge and profiles nearly two-dozen women basketmakers.  This work was a monumental research task, and brings together the largest collection of photographs of Western Mono, Mono Lake Paiute, and Sierra Miwok basketry ever assembled.

 Baumhof, M. A.

1952    Carbonized Basketry from the Thomas Site. University of California Archaeological Survey Reports 19:9-11, Berkeley, CA.

1957    Catlow Twine from Central California.  University of California Archaeological Survey Reports 38:1-5.

Bean, Lowell John and Harry Lawton

1967    A Bibliography of the Cahuilla Indians of California.  Malki Museum Press, Banning, CA.

Bean, Lowell John

1972    Mukat's People: The Cahuilla Indians of Southern California.  University of California Press, Berkeley.

Written by the preeminent scholar of the Cahuilla, this view of Cahuilla life encompasses kinship, ethnobotany, spirituality, history, settlement patterns, worldview and religion.  Bean's discussion of basketry is limited to its social context, citing the production of baskets as a physical manifestation of a woman's industriousness, a desirable attribute in a Cahuilla woman.  His other reference is in his explanation of Cahuilla reciprocity and the ritual exchange of goods to assure no one suffered from want when others has excess goods.  Contains an extensive bibliography.

1992    Indians of California ‑ Diverse and Complex Peoples.  California History fall 71(3):302+.

Bean, Lowell John and Harry W. Lawton

1993    Some Explanations for the Rise of Cultural Complexity in Native California with Comments on Proto-Agriculture and Agriculture.  In Before the Wilderness: Environmental Management by Native Californians.  Ballena Press, Menlo Park, CA.

Bean, Lowell John and Katherine Siva Saubel

1972    Temalpakh: Cahuilla Indian Knowledge and Usage of Plants.  Malki Museum Press, Morongo Indian Reservation.

This volume discusses different plant materials used in basketmaking.  Unlike other references to plant materials it make references to individual rights to gather materials, and the habit of keeping gathering sites secret.  Several detailed photographs of basketmakers and materials.  With an appendix on the problem of aboriginal agriculture among the Cahuilla by Harry W. Lawton.

Begley A.

1993    Raiders of the Lost Archives: The Pomo Postdoc Action‑adventure Novel.  Lingua Franca Jul-Aug 3(5):36-40

Benedict, Ruth (1887-1948)

1924    A Brief Sketch of  Serrano Culture.  American Anthropologist 26:368-369.

Bernstein, Bruce

1984    Basketry Collections Around the Country.  Fiberarts 11(50):50‑51.=

A listing of public museums containing baskets.  These baskets represent many Native American as well as European, African‑American, Euro American, and Asian basketry traditions.

1990    Weaver’s Talk, the Language of Baskets and the Meaning of Aeesthetic Judgement: The Patwin of Central California.  In The Art of Native American Basketry: A Living Legend edited by Frank W. Porter.  Greenwood Press, Westport, Connecticut.

Bernstein offers his interpretation of the Patwin system of basket analysis.  He also outlines why such a system is utilized and maintained and how it emphasizes process and de-emphasizes end product.  He gives a quite brief history of the Patwin people and maintains that baskets are a record of Patwin life.  He states, “A weaver learns her culture like any other member of society; she is then able to present her interpretation of it through basket making.”  He selects baskets and makers from five predominantly Patwin communities for his analysis.  He identifies eight technological features which define Patwin baskets.  These are the basket start, the incorporation of new weaving splints, the foundation, form, materials, the use of color, the combination of design motifs, and the placement of design motifs.  Because of these fixed elements, Patwin weavers are able to identify baskets produced by their own people as separate from those of other groups even though some of the other elements may be present in the other work.  He further declares the skill of Patwin weavers to be such that they can imitate the basket style and elements of other groups.  This practice seems to have developed for economic reasons, as does the practice of using nontraditional materials for baskets for collectors.

1996    Native American Basketry: The Hartman Collection.  The Albrecht Kemper Museum of Art, St. Joseph, Missouri.

Bibby, Brian

1996    The Fine Art of California Indian Basketry.  Crocker Art Museum, Sacramento, CA.

Blackburn, Thomas C. and Kat Anderson

1993    Before the Wilderness: Environmental Management by Native Californians.  Ballena Press, Menlo Park, CA.

Blackburn, Thomas C.  and Travis Hudson










imes Flotsam: Overseas Collections of California Indian Material Culture.  90    A Ballena Press, Menlo Park, CA and Santa Barbara Museum of Natural History , Santa Barbara.

Lists thousands of objects in overseas collections by tribe, type of object and accession or catalog number.

Bolton, Henry E., editor

1916    Spanish Explorations in the Southwest, 1542 - 1706.  New York.

1931    Anza’s California Expeditions.  University of California Press, Berkeley.

Borger I.

1990    A Shoreline Composition - Natural Materials Enhance a Collection of Primitive Art in Southern California.  Architectural Digest Mar 47(3):199+.

Bowers, Stephen (Reverend)

1878    History and Antiquities of Santa Rosa Island.  Smithsonian Institution Annual Report.  Washington, D.C.

1885a  Relics in a Cave.  Pacific Scie/nce Monthly 1:45-47.

1885b  A Report on a Cave in the San Martin Mountains.  Pacific Science Monthly 4:1.

1888    A Remarkable Valley and an Interesting Tribe of Indians.  San Buena Ventura, CA

A self-published survey of the Conchilla (Coachella) Valley and the Desert Cahuilla Indians.   presents a jaundiced view of Cahuilla life describing them as "sun and fire worshipers who venerate the coyote. "He briefly describes large basketry granaries used for the storage of mesquite beans and notes otherwise that "they make beautiful baskets."  It is noteworthy that Bowers arrived in the Conchilla Valley via the railroad, according to the pamphlet.

Branstetter, Katherine B.

1980    A Wiyot Fancy Basket.  Journal of California and Great Basin Anthropology 2(2):266-269.

Broadbent, Sylvia

1964    The Southern Miwok Language.  University of California Publications in Linguistics 38, Berkeley, CA.

Contains the text (#1) of a conversation about gathering and preparing basketry materials between Rose Watt and Lizzie Graham.  In addition there is a discussion with Emma Lord regarding the use of sourberry shoots for cradle making in text number two.  All three women are represented in photographic plates.  The volume contains Miwok to English and English to Miwok dictionaries which define basket terms and plants.

1972    The Rumsen of Monterey, an Ethnography from Historical Sources.  University of California Archaeological Research Facility 14.

A cultural inventory of the Rumsen culture.  Analysis of basketry is limited to a short discussion of materials and uses.

Bruchac J.

1992    Waw - giwulk.  The Center of the Basket: Pima Indian Legend and Basket Mazes.  Parabola-the Magazine of Myth and Tradition summer 17(2):52-53.

Campbell, Elizabeth W. Crozer (1893-?)

1931    An Archaeological Survey of the Twenty Nine Palms Region.  Southwest Museum Papers. Southwest Museum, Los Angeles.

This volume is a preliminary report of the outstanding features of the archaeology of the Twenty Nine Palms region.  A remarkably large collection of pottery, textiles, baskets, lithics and other manufactured objects are listed as discovered, cleaned, repaired and cataloged.  Liberally illustrated with photographs of the cave with objects in situ and after cleaning.  Elizabeth and William Campbell first entered the Twenty Nine Palms area in 1925 and subsequently explored every cave they could find, under t`he auspices of Federal permits.  This paper offers a cursory look at the culture of the users of the objects excavated and a brief history of the Campbells' collecting. 

Carr, Jeannie C.

1892    Among the Basketmakers, California. Illustrated Magazine October.

Caughey, John Walton, editor (1902-    )

1952    The Indians of Southern California in 1852.  The B. D. Wilson Report.  The Huntington Library, San Marino, CA.

Channing, Grace Ellery (1862-1937)

1890    The Baskets of Anita.  Scribner's Magazine Aug.

Chestnut, Stewart

1902    Plants Used by the Indians of Mendocino County, California.  Contributions to the U.S. National Herbarium 7:3.

Cody, Bertha Parker

c1940  California Indian Baby Cradles.  Southwest Museum Leaflets 12. 

A brief comparison of cradle manufacture and use in central and northern California.  In south-central and southern California only the Diegueno are mentioned. 

Coe, Ralph T.

1976    Sacred Circles: Two Thousand Years of North American Indian Art.  Arts Council of Great Britain, London.

Cohodas, Marvin

1976    Lena Frank Dick: An Outstanding Washoe Basketmaker.  American Indian Art Magazine 4:32-41,90.

Collings, Jerold

1975    The Yokuts Gambling Tray. American Indian Art Magazine autumn 1(1):10-15.

Conn, Richard

1974    Robes of White Shell and Sunrise: Personal Decorative Art of the Native American.  Denver Art Museum, Denver.

An exhibition catalog covering the range of clothing and ornamentation in North America as represented in the collections of the Denver Museum of Art.  Of interest from California are front and back skirts, basket hats, and a few other peices of dance regalia, notably the Maru Pomo Bighead headdress.

1979a  Native American Art from the Permanent Collection.  Trustees of Pomona College, Claremont, CA.

1979b  Native American Art in the Denver Art Museum.  Denver Art Museum, Denver.

Examines a wide range of Native American material culture from most of North America.  Discussion of southern California baskets is generalized, stating that all the "Mission" groups made coiled basketry of a similar nature.  Discussion of northern California basketry differentiates clearly between tribes, identifying baskets as Yokut, Miwok, Pomo, and Mono.  Lavish photos with a 50 item bibliography.

Cooper, Amy R.

1983    Interweaving Traditions.  Forward by Frank LaPena.  Mary Porter Sesnon Gallery, University of California, Santa Cruz.

An exhibition catalog devoted to the work of various anonymous, native California women basketmakers and the work of contemporary fiber artist Elizabeth Lindsley.

Cullin, Stewart

1975    Games of the North American Indians.  Dover Publications, Inc.: New York.  Originally published by the Government Printing Office as the Twenty-Fourth Annual Report of the Bureau of American Ethnology to the Smithsonian Institution, 1902-1903, W. H. Holmes, Chief.

An incredible work which illustrates thousands of gaming objects including sticks, dice, string figures, racing, balls, and hoop and pole games.  Here as elsewhere basketry emerges as an integral part of the game in many cultures, but nowhere do they achieve the perfection of form, that they did in California.  Several baskets are illustrated in photographic plates and sketches. This volume points out the myriad proto-basketry techniques used in the construction of equipment (see also Gendar 1995).

Dalton, O. M.

1901    California Basketwork (note on a specimen of basketwork from California recently acquired by the British Museum).  Man 1(17):23-24.

Davis, E.L. and William Allan

1967    Diegueño Coiled Baskets.  San Diego Museum of Man Ethnic Technology Notes 1.

This purely descriptive pamphlet is a sketchy study of fifty‑one Diegueño coiled baskets in the collection of the San Diego Museum of Man.  Of note in this work is the identification of basketmakers and the purpose of manufacture as for sales, use, or gifts.

Dawson, Lawrence E.

1978a  Personal Communication to K. Whistler regarding similarities between Yokuts baskets and archaeological basketry from Oregon.  Phoebe A.  Hearst Museum of Anthropology,  University of California, Berkeley.

1978b  Suggestions of Maidu Prehistory from Basketry Evidence.  Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the Society for California Archaeology, Yosemite National Park.

  Dawson, Lawrence E., and James Deetz

1965    A Corpus of Chumash Basketry.  Annual Reports of the University of California Archaeological Survey 7:193-276.

  Deetz, James F.

1963    Basketry from the James-Abels Collection.  Museum Talk - Santa Barbara Museum of Natural History 38(2):16-23.

Two ranchers, J.G. James and Henry Abels, excavated objects from a cave near Mr. James ranch in 1930.  Carbon dating of one of the baskets found there indicated 120 years ± 80 years.  Deetz examined the objects upon their donation to the Santa Barbara Museum of Natural History.  He has concluded that the objects are of Chumash manufacture and use, but his analysis moves little beyond descriptive narrative.  He describes the direction of coiling and the materials used and comments on probable use.  He mentions adapted use of one bowl-shaped basket indicating that because the work surface appears to be the outside of the basket it was probable that the original form was taller and had a constricted neck, comparing the form to the manufacture of an open bowl which was typically worked from the inside.

Degenhart, Pearl

1931    Hupa Indian Basket Designs.  School Arts 30:629-631.


Dick, Linda, Lorrie Planas, Judy Polanich, Craig D. Bates, and Martha Lee

1988    Strands of Time: Yokuts, Mono, and Miwok Basketmakers.  Fresno Metropolitan Museum, Fresno, CA.

This exhibition catalog documents the cultural process of basketry.  Beginning with an explanation of materials and techniques it quickly divides in several directions including the object in its cultural context and its uses, histories of individual basketmakers, and modern constraints on basketmaking; it is amply illustrated with portraits of basketmakers and of the general cultural milieu.  Craig Bates offers a look at the impact of collecting on basketmaking in the Yosemite Valley and adjacent areas.  This catalog includes many quotes from living basketmakers.

Dixon, Roland B

1900    Basketry Designs of the Maidu Indians of California.  American Anthropologist 2(2):266-276.

Dixon prefaces his descriptions of Maidu basket designs with commentary on how the "region has been of late years more or less thoroughly scoured for baskets by local dealers, and by several traveling salesmen, who have become victims of the `basket craze'."  He generally discusses forms, the interpretation of design, and the use of various materials including feathers.  He makes passing comparison to baskets from neighboring groups to the north and east.  Illustrated with sketches of Maidu baskets at the American Museum of Natural History.  No bibliography.

1902    Basketry Designs of the Indians of Northen California.  Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 17(1):1-32.

Includes 37 black and white plates of 136 baskets.

Dozier, Deborah S

1992    Objects of Myth and Memory - American Indian Art at the Brooklyn Museum.  American Indian Culture and Research Journal 16(2):240-242.

A review of an exhibition catalog from the Brooklyn Museum exhibition of 1991.  Dozier points out the responsibility of collecting institutions in working cooperatively with Native American populations to forge new and cooperative relationships, especially in light of the museum community's removal of so much cultural material from native hands.

Douglas, Frederick H. 

1939    The Main Divisions of California Indian Basketry.  The American Indian Leaflet Series 83-84.  Denver Art Museum, Denver.

DuBois, Cora

1939    Wintu Ethnography.  University of California Publications in Archaeology and Ethnology 36:131-139.

Dubois, Constance Goddard

1902    The Mythology of the Diegueños, Mission Indians of San Diego County, California, as Proving their Status to be Higher Than is Generaly Believed.  New York.

1903    Manzanita Basketry, A Revival.  Papoose 1(7):21-27.

A description of the revival of the basketmaking of a group of Diegueño basketmakers from the town of Manzanita, CA.  She attributes the revival of basketry to the influence of collectors from the eastern US.  She further points out that Manzanita baskets are desirable in the eastern market because the location of Manzanita is so remote that the Diegueños there have scarcely had contact with whites and their culture, i.e. the work therefore being "primitive."  She describes the old women as still wearing their basket hats and yucca sandals.  A succinct summation says, "These baskets compare very favorably with early specimens of the same weave, some of them having gained rather than lost from the commercial impulse, since in this case it takes the form of a general wish to please the purchaser, and is defended by an absolute isolation from any absorption of the white man's ideas in decoration.  The dyes are genuinely primitive, and the designs original to the maker."

1905    Religious Ceremonies and Myths of the Mission Indians.  American Anthropologist 7(4):620-29).

1907    Diegueno Mortuary Ollas.  American Anthropologist 9:484-486.

1908    Religion of the Luiseno Indians.  University of California Publications in Archaeology and Ethnology 8: 167-173.

Dwiggins, Don

1976    Gathering of the Clams.  Westways 68:46-49.

"Malibu's littleneck clam is valued today as a delicious seafood, but did the Chumash find inspiration for their exquisite basketry in the patterns of the shell?" reads the note beneath the headline.

Ebeling, Walter

1988    Handbook of Indian Foods and Fibers of Arid America.  University of California Press, Berkeley.

Elasser, A. B.

1978    Basketry.  In Handbook of the North American Indians, Vol. 8: California, pp. 626-641.  Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C.

The Emporium Company

1900    The Queen of Basketry: Louisa Keyser.  San Francisco: Francis Valentine Company.

1905    How The Louisa Keyser Baskets Are Made: Dat So La Lee, Her Life and Work.  Los Angeles: Le Berthon.

The Emporium Company, established in Carson City, Nevada bought and sold several thousand Washoe baskets over four decades.  They later opened a summer store in Tahoe City.  Owners Amy and Abraham Cohn concentrated on promotion and documentation.  They published many photographic pamphlets and issued certificates of documentation with each basket sold.  They were the major vendors of Dat so la le baskets.

Fane, Diana, Ira Jacknis and Lise M. Breen

1991    Objects of Myth and Memory: American Indian Art at the Brooklyn Museum.  The Brooklyn Museum, Brooklyn, New York.

Stewart Culin, the Brooklyn Museum's founding curator of ethnology, devoted the first decade of this century to defining and preserving American Indian cultures by means of a comprehensive collection.  By 1912 he had installed more than 9,000 objects in the Museum's Hall of American Ethnology.  A founding member of the American Anthropological Association, he was a self‑educated ethnologist who gained experience in Philadelphia's Chinese community.  He headed the section entitled "Folklore and Primitive World Religions" for the World's Columbian Exposition in Chicago in 1893, securing his position as a leading ethnologist.  He collected and displayed a large number of Hupa, Yurok, Maidu, and Pomo baskets and other objects in his Barnum and Bailey style Hall of American Ethnology.  Jacknis credits the sale of the private collection of J.W. Hudson to the U.S. Nation Museum (Hudson was a physician who collected for the Field Museum in Chicago) with a surge in interest in California baskets.  He also credits the Arts and Crafts Movement for interest in California baskets.  Culin competed with Kroeber and other ethnologists for baskets and artifacts which he himself acquired or which he bought from dealers and traders, although he eschewed contact with academics.


Forbes, Jack D.

                        1969    Native Americans of California and Nevada.  Naturegraph Publications, Healdsburg, CA.

An introductory synthesis dealing with the history and sociocultural evolution of native groups living in California and Nevada, especially as the subject is relevant to education and community development.  Passing mention is made of baskets in association with burials and resistance to Anglo‑American conquest.  Some early sketches by G. Langsdorf reproduced.  Some historical photos of Miwuk, Pomo, Mono, and Paiute basketmakers. The author is a faculty member at UC Davis and is associated with DQ University.


Foreman, Louise

                        1967    Baskets! Baskets! Baskets! The Masterkey 41(4):143-147.

A brief description of the 2500 piece, Carolyn Boeing Poole basket collection, housed in the Southwest Museum.


Fowler, Catherine S. and Lawrence E. Dawson

                        1986    Ethnographic Basketry.  In Handbook of North American Indians, vol.  11.  Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, D. C.


Furst, Peter T. and Jill L.

1982    North American Indian Art.  Rizzoli International Publications, Inc., New York.

This volume ably describes the art of all North American culture regions.  Generously illustrated with color photographs it is an ideal introductory text for the study of Native American Indian art.  The section on California sheds no new light on California ethnography but provides a worthwhile comparison of Northern, Central, and Southern basketry.


Gamble, Geoffrey, Janette Gamble and Cecilia Silvia

                        1979    Wikchamni Coiled Basketry. Journal of California and Great Basin Anthropology 1(2):278-279.

This paper was written by a Wikchamni basketmaker, Cecilia Silvia, Janette Gamble, an anthropologist at Cal State Fresno and Geoffrey Gamble, a linguist at Washington State University.  Cecilia Silvia took the Gambles to gather materials, showed them the proper preparation for materials and instructed them in coiling technique.  Modern problems for Indian basketmakers, such as the fencing of preferred gathering areas, were discussed.  Some designs are discussed and photos and sketches illustrate this account of much digging to procure the necessary roots.  Short bibliography and Wikchamni lexicon and pronunciation guide.


Gendar, Jeannine

                        1995    Grass Games and Moon Races: California Indian Games and Toys.  Heyday Books: Berkeley, Ca.

This volume not only shows some basketry, notably gaming trays, but also talks about baskets in their place in gaming, as subjects of bets, as prizes, or as models for gaming equipment.  A most interesting aspect was to see how many fiber/textile techniques used in toy and game equipment manufacture are protobasketry techniques, ie., making hoops, stripping rods, and stitching.


Gifford, E.W.

1940    Culture Element Distributions: XII Apache-Pueblo.  Anthropological Records 4(1).  University of California, Berkeley.

A true culture element distribution in the style of the mid 20th century.  This work is merely a long list of traits and their distribution across Apache and Pueblo populations.

1967    The Use of Acorns in California.  In The North American Indians, Owens, et al., eds.  Macmillan Company, Inc.: New York, pp. 403-409.

A very brief discussion of basketry incidental to acorn processing.

Gifford, Edward W., and Alfred Kroeber

                        1939    Culture Element Distribution, IV: Pomo.  University of California Publications in American Archaeology and Ethnology 37(4):117-254.


Gifford, Edward W., and Stanislaus Klimek

                        1939    Culture Element Distribution, II: Yana.  University of California Publications in American Archaeology and Ethnology 37(2):71-100.

Gogel, John M.

1982    Klamath, Modoc and Shasta Basketry. American Indian Basketry Magazine.  3(2):10-13.

Discussion of design, materials, forms, and uses of basketry among the Modoc, Klamath and Shasta people of northern California.  Some small reference to language, culture differences, and basketry as an income producing industry in modern times.  Well illustrated by historical photographs and containing a short bibliography.


Halpern, A. M.

                        1989    A Review of Southeastern Pomo Ceremonials: The Kuksu Cult and Its Successors by Bruce Bernstein.  Journal of Anthropological Research summer 45(2):252‑255.


Harrington, John P.

                        1923    Archaeological Work in California.  Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections 76(10):107-108.

                        1927a  Archaeological and Ethnological Research in California.  Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections 78(7):232-237.

                        1927b  Researches on the Archaeology of Southern California.  Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections 78(7):106-111.

                        1933    Report on Fieldwork on Indians of Monterey and San Benito Counties.  Bureau of American Ethnology Annual Report for 1931-1932:2-3.

                        1942    Culture Element Distribution, XIX: Central California Coast.  University of California Anthropological Record 7(1):1-46.


Harris, Benjamin

                        1857    Report on Southern California Indians.  In 34th Congress, 3rd Session, House Executive Document 76 Serial No. 906.  Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C.


Heizer, Robert F., D. Bailey, Mark Estis, and Karen Nissen

                        1969    Catalogue of the C. Hart Merriam Collection of Data Concerning California Indian Tribes and other American Indian Tribes.  Berkeley: University of California, Department of Anthropology, Archaeological Research Unit.


Heizer, Robert F. and Albert B. Elasser

                        1980    The Natural World of the California Indians.  University of California Press, Berkeley.


Heizer, Robert F.

                        1968    One of the Oldest Known California Indian Baskets.  Masterkey Apr-Jun 42(2):71-75.


Heizer, Robert F. and M. A. Whipple, editors

                        1965    The California Indians‑‑A Sourcebook.  University of California Press, Berkeley.

A collection of general survey essays, archeological reports, historical accounts and works pertaining to California native material and social cultures.


Heye, George G.

                        1919    Certain Aboriginal Pottery from Southern California.  Indian Notes and Monographs 7(1):3-48.


                        1921    Certain Artifacts from San Miguel Island, California.  Indian Notes and Monographs 7(4).


Holmes, W. H.

                        1883    Prehistoric Textile Fabrics of the United States, Derived from Impressions on Pottery.  Bureau of American Ethnography Third Annual Report 393-425.  U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C.

                        1919    Handbook of Aboriginal American Antiquities.  Bureau of American Ethnology Bulletin 60.


Hudson, J.  W.

            1893    Pomo Basket Makers.  Overland Monthly 21:561-578.  Second Series.


Hudson, Travis, editor

                        1978    The Wind Sycamore: Some J.P. Harrington Notes on a Ventureño Chumash Shrine. The Ventura County Historical Society Quarterly 24(1):1‑15

A description of a Ventureño Chumash shrine at an ancient sycamore tree adopted by the Catholic padres as the location for a chapel.  Harrington describes objects left at the shrine by the Chumash, including baskets of ants.  Other "baskets containing offerings of seeds, nuts and so  forth were placed both inside and outside the tree."  The tree, known as the Wind Sycamore, evidently had a large hollow "near the ground at one end."  Other objects including beads and food were also left there.  It is interesting to note that a wooden image about two and one‑half feet long was hung in the hollow of the tree.  According to Harrington's informants people who wished ill for an enemy would go to the tree and afflict their enemy by turning the various plugs which held the articulated form together, thus affecting the enemy's corresponding part.  He also states that medicine men would cure people ills by means of the god of the Wind Sycamore.  A photograph of the tree depicts the tree as anthropomorphic.


Hudson, Travis and Thomas Blackburn

            1982‑1987       The Material Culture of the Chumash Interaction Sphere.  5 vols.

                                    Ballena Press, Los Altos, California and Santa Barbara Museum of Natural History, Santa Barbara.

Five volumes covering every known aspect of Chumash material culture.  Basketry is addressed in sections on transportation, gathering, storage, cooking, processing and serving food, furnishings, mats, netting, textiles, ritual structures and paraphernalia, headgear, and games.  Each item is defined, historical accounts of the object are cited, and ethnographic accounts are listed.  A discussion follows, encompassing distribution and remarks further defining the ethnographic accounts; examples are depicted in sketches by Georgia Lee or photographs of know objects in collections.


Jackson, Helen Hunt

                        1884    Ramona.  Roberts Brothers, Boston.


James, George Wharton

                        1901a  Among the Mono Basketmakers. Sunset: The Magazine of the Border 6(4):107-112.

                        1901b  Indian Basketry.  Malkan, New York.

This volume examines West Coast basketry from Alaska to Southern California.  Among the topics discussed are the relation of basketry to pottery, the appearance of basketry in legend, the use of baskets in ceremony and a host of data regarding materials, preparation, dyes, form, use, and the symbolism of designs.  Explains how to collect, preserve and differentiate between "good" and "bad" baskets.  Liberally illustrated with more than 300 illustrations consisting of sketches and historical photos.  Contains a two-page bibliography.

                        1903    Basketmakers of California at Work. The Basket 1:2-18.


Johnson, Barbara

                        1959    Seri Indian Basketry. Kiva: A Journal of the Arizona Archaeological and Historical Society 25(1):10-13.


Keator, Glenn, Linda Yamane, and Ann Lewis

                        1995    In Full View: Three Ways of Seeing California Plants.  Heyday Books: Berkeley, CA.


Kelly, Isabel I.

                        1930    Yuki Basketry.  University of California Publications in American Archaeology and Ethnology 24(9):421-454.


Kelsey, Andrea

                        1975    Interview with Ada Charles.  In I am These People.  Governor’s Office, State Capitol, Sacramento, CA.


King, C. D.

                        1992    A Review of The Evolution of Chumash Society: A Comparative Study of Artifacts Used for Social System Maintenance in the Santa‑Barbara Channel Region Before A. D. 1804 by J. R. Johnson.  American Indian Culture and Research Journal 16(3):207‑209.


Kroeber, Alfred Louis

                        1904    Types of Indian Culture in California.  University of California Publications in American Archaeology and Ethnology 2(3):80‑103.

A rather ethnocentric view of California Indian life with frequent references to the primitiveness and simplicity of various cultures.  In Kroeber's opinion lack of "war for its own sake," a lack of "confederacies of powerful tribes," and an absence of "totems" combined with the lack of "picturesqueness and dignity of other Indians" qualify California natives as "unusually simple and undeveloped."  His primary means of differentiation of peoples seems to be linguistic.  His reference to baskets is limited and in his opinion it is the sole area of culture which had "reached considerable development."

                        1905    Basket Designs of the Indians of Northern California.  University of California Publications in American Archaeology and Ethnology 2(4):105‑165.

                        1906    Shoshonean Dialects of California.  University of California Publications in American Archaeology and Ethnology 4:65-165.

                        1908    Ethnohistory of the Cahuilla Indians.  The University of California Press, Berkeley.

                        1909    California Basketry and the Pomo.  American Anthropologist 11:233-249.

                        1922a  Elements of Culture in Native California.  University of California Publication in Archaeology and Ethnology 13(8):259-328.

                        1922b  Basket Designs of the Mission Indians.  Anthropological Papers of the American Museum of Natural History 20:149-183.

                                    1925 [1976]     Handbook of the Indians of California.  Dover Publications, New York.

The authoritative text on the subject.  A complex summation of every aspect of Native American life in California.  It is essentially a culture distribution element guide which focuses primarily on material culture.  It aptly describes basketry techniques and materials, and names some English translations of design names.  It is one of the earliest texts to largely ignore the convenient heading of "Mission" Indian, although his differentiation of southern California tribes is sketchy.

                        1926    Basketry Designs of the Mission Indians.  American Museum of Natural History Guide Leaflet Series 60:1-10.

                        1967    The Indians of California.  In The North American Indians: A Sourcebook.  Edited by R. C. Owen, J. J. F. Deetz, and A. D. Fischer.  The McMillan Company, New York.  Abridged from Elements of Culture in Native California originally published 1922, University of California Publications in American Archaeology and Ethnology 13:259‑328. 

                        1970    Elements of Culture in Native California.  In The California Indians: A Source Book edited by R.F. Heizer and M. A. Whipple.  University of California Press, Berkeley, CA. Originally published 1922, University of California Publications in American Archaeology and Ethnology 13:260‑328.

This introduction to the tribes of California generally describes the various regions of California culture.  He divides his discussion into three areas: Arts of Life, Society, and Religion & Knowledge.  His discussion of basketry is a short discussion of element distribution based on his notion of "complexes, that is to say, materials, processes, forms and uses which abstractly considered bear no intrinsic relation to one another; or only a slight relation, [but] are in fact bound up in a unit."  He bases his notion of the complex on the strict adherence to materials, form, technique, and design despite influences from surrounding groups and an abundance of diverse materials.  He illustrates his point by examining basketry in terms of geography, noting that twining is used, in the north exclusively, in central areas coiling and twining both are used and in the south coiling predominates.  He cites the absence of wickerwork and plaiting as further evidence of the existence of "complexes."  He also discusses the manufacture of shouldered forms among south-central California groups as evidence of a "complex."

                        1970    Mission Indian Basket Designs.  In The California Indians: A Source Book, edited by R.F. Heizer and M. A. Whipple.  University of California Press, Berkeley, CA.  Originally published 1932, American Museum of Natural History, Guide Leaflet 55.

In his usual deprecating style Kroeber discusses the adherence to a few traditional materials despite the abundance of materials used for basketmaking in other parts of California.  He also notes the restriction of the technique of twining to work baskets and the use of coiling as the preferred method of manufacture for storage, gift, and sale baskets.  In his opinion the Cahuilla fit the classification of California Indian because they have this "curious situation: the general industrial backwardness of the California Indians is exemplified by the leaving of their most important industries to their women; but the women have so far advanced this industry that the men have no hand in the peak of the attainment of the native culture on its material side."  He points out that "Mission" baskets are made economically, not so much as to avoid labor but to simplify the process.  For the same reason he concludes that design patterns are simple, blocky and prominent due to use of stark contrast in color.


Kroeber, Theodora

                        1961    Ishi in Two Worlds: A Biography of the Last Wild Indian in North America.  University of California Press, Berkeley.

                        1970    Alfred Kroeber: A Personal Configuration.  University of California Press, Berkeley, CA.


Lang J.

                        1991    The Basket and World Renewal: Celebration of Basket‑Weaving as a Way of Life.  Parabola ‑ The Magazine of Myth and Tradition fall 16(3):82‑85.


LaPena, Frank

                        1985    The Extension of Tradition: Contemporary Northern California Native American Art in Cultural Perspective.  The Crocker Art Museum, Sacramento, CA.

Focusing on California cultures this volume presents an excellent discussion of the themes of art as an expression of tribal consciousness and the transfer of that consciousness from one generation to the next.  This transfer of cultural material which was once passed on through basketry and other traditional art forms is now being transferred through modern art media which embody the cultural material in a new medium.

                        1992    Contemporary Northern California Native‑American Art.  California History, fall 71(3):386‑401.


Lenssen, Barbera G., Andrew Whitford, and Susan B. McGreevy

                        1980    Lullabies from the Earth: Cradles of North America.  Wheelwright Museum of the American Indian: Santa Fe, New Mexico.

An exhibition pamphlet from an exhibition of North American cradle types, with brief reference to Mojave and central and northern Californian styles.  Illustrated.


Lewis, Henry T.

                        1993    Patterns of Indian Burning in California: Ecology and Ethnohistory.  In Before the Wilderness: Environmental Management by Native Californians.  Ballena Press, Menlo Park, CA.  Reprinted from Ballena Press Anthropological Papers 1, edited by Lowell John Bean, 1973.


Lightfoot, K. G., T. A. Wake, and A. M. Schiff

                        1993    Native Responses to the Russian Mercantile Colony of Fort‑Ross, Northern California.  Journal of Field Archaeology summer 20(2):159‑175.


Lummis, C. F.

                        1902    The Exiles of Cupa.  Out West 16:465-479,601-61.


Mack, Joanne M.

                        1990    Changes in Cahuilla Coiled Basketry. In The Art of Native American Basketry: A Living Legend edited by Frank W. Porter.  Greenwood Press, Westport, Connecticut.

Mack discusses the reasons for lumping Southern California people into the "Mission Indian" classification.  Citing the surface similarity in the coiled basket of southern California, Mack cites intermarriage, both in aboriginal times and during the mission era, the ease of classification for collectors and institutions, and the relative difficulty in determining who lived at which location after the influx of Euro‑Americans.  She traces changes in form, function, and design from the late 1700s through the early 1900s.  Although she states changes in technique occurred, in reality the changes are so closely related to form and function that they are not really changes in technique but in form and materials.  She enumerates dyes, Cahuilla names, forms, and designs of traditional baskets.  She notes the causes for change, citing the usual collector interest, restriction of traditional gathering areas, changes in function, intertribal contact, the introduction of manufactured containers, and the switch to a cash economy.


Margolin, Malcom

                        1978    The Ohlone Way.  Heyday Press, Berkeley.

An attempt to highlight the importance of basketry in the life of an Ohlone woman, but only treats the material in a conceptual, almost spiritual, fashion.


Mason, Otis Tufton

                        1988    American Indian Basketry.  Reprinted.  Dover Press, Mineola, New York.  Originally published 1904, Double Day, Page & Company, New York.

Discussion of all native North and South American basketry with a small section on "Mission" basketry.  Mason clearly lumps southern California tribes as "Mission" people, despite the variety of Shoshonean and Yuman language dialects.  He enumerates the basketmaking tribes of the United States, specifically mentioning the Cahuilla as both a subset of "Mission" Indian as well as a distinct tribe.  Although he devotes seventy pages to the description of California baskets he dismisses southern California baskets in only ten pages and half of those are full‑page illustrations.  He concludes that no specific study of Cahuilla basket designs has been made, although he does name some forms and materials.  The descriptions are general and refer frequently to the term "Mission."  Notable in this volume are the names and location of more than 115 private and public collections of basketry listing the major areas of collection.

                        1889    The Ray Collection from the Hupa Reservation.  Smithsonian Institution, Annual Report for 1886: 205-239.

                        1902    Aboriginal American Basketry: Studies in a Textile Art Without Machinery.  Smithsonian Institution, Annual Report for 1886: 205-239.


Mclendon, Sally

                        1990    Pomoan Baskets: The Legacy of William and Mary Benson.  Native Peoples 4(1):49-60

                        1992    California Baskets and Basketmakers.  In Basketmakers:Meaning and Form in Native American Baskets, edited by Linda Mowat, Howard Morphy, and Penny Dransart.  Pitt Rivers Museum Monograph 6:51-76.

            1993    Collecting Pomoan Baskets, 1889-1939.  Museum Anthropology 17():49-60.


Mclendon, Sally and Brenda Shears Holland

                        1979    The Basketmaker: The Pomoan of California.  In The Ancestors.  Museum of the American Indian ‑ Heye Foundation, New York

A look at basketmaking in aboriginal and modern times in the seventy‑two groups of Pomo basketmakers.  Of note is a reference to Grace Nicholson's revolution of the basket trade after she sold some baskets to anthropologist, C. Hart Merriam.  Discusses the training of basketmakers, the effects of collecting and western contact, the role of the basket in Pomo life, with a most through discussion devoted to basketmaking materials and manipulation.  Amply illustrated with sketches, photographs of objects and historic photographs.


Mendelsohn, Pam

                        1983    Northwest California Basketry.  Southwest Art Magazine June:56-63.


Merriam, Clinton Hart (1855‑1942)

            c.1890-1938    C. Hart Merriam collection of Native American photographs.  Bancroft

                                Library, University of California, Berkeley, CA.

                        1906    Recent Cave Explorations in California.  American Anthropologist 8:221-228.

                        1979    Indian Names for Plants and Animals Among Californian and Other Western North American Tribes, assembled and annotated by Robert F. Heizer.  Ballena Press, Socorro, NM.


Merrill, Ruth Earl

1970    Plants Used in Basketry by the California Indians.  Acoma Press, Ramona, California.  Originally published 1923 by the University of California Publications in Archaeology and Ethnology 20:215-242.

A botanical discussion of plant, preparation techniques, and distribution of basketry materials, based on the California basket collection at the University of California Berkeley.  Plant identification was made by comparison of known plant specimens in the UC Berkeley Herbarium collection.  The study included 1,848 positively identified baskets representing 37 tribes from northern and southern California.


Metzler, Sandra

                        1984    A Family Album of Pomo Baskets.  Fiberarts Jan-Feb 11(1):63-65.


Mission Indian Agency

            1931-44           Records.  Box 65: 961- Industries, Manufacturing, Baskets (1931-1939);

                                    961 Industries, Manufacturing, Baskets (1931-39), 961 Industries, Baskets (1934-38), 967 Industries: Manufacturing; Lace making (1931-34), 970 Arts and Crafts (1934-44).  National Archives, Pacific Southwest Region, Laguna Niguel, CA.


                                    1939-46           Records. Boxes 67-68: 1000.3- Mission Indian Agency: Annual Statistical

                                    Report, 1939; 1000.4 Mission Indian Agency: Annual Statistical Report, 1940; 1000.5 Mission Indian Agency: Annual Statistical Report, 1942; 1000.6 Annual Statistical Report: Individual Indian Income, 1943; 1000.7 Annual Statistical Report: Individual Indian Income, 1943; 1000.9 Annual Statistical Report: Individual Indian Income, 1945; 1000.10 Annual Statistical Report; Individual Indian Income, 1946; 1000.11 Annual Statistical Report; Individual Indian Income,1944.

Records of basketmakers names, location, production, in some cases giving dimensions and designs.  Records sales and prices as well.  Gives some idea of mesquite and acorn harvest those years.  Some compelling personal letters reveal intended use of basket sale money.


Moser, Chris L.

1987    Native American Basketry of Central California.  Riverside Museum Press, Riverside, CA.

1989    Native American Basketry of Southern California.  Riverside Museum Press, Riverside, CA.

1992    Native American Basketry of Northern California.  Riverside Museum Press, Riverside, CA.

These handsome volumes comprise a series of three volumes with an examination of northern, central, and southern California basketry.  With an emphasis on the tribe and maker these volumes compare baskets from different regions of California.  Dr. Moser has researched in depth the families of basketmakers and their favored designs, paying strict attention to the historical record as it reveals details about basketmakers' lives and work.  Lavishly illustrated in black and white and color it depicts basketmakers at work on completed baskets included in the exhibitions at the Riverside Municipal Museum, on which these catalogs are based.  Identifies baskets from many public and private collections.


Newman, Sandra Corrie

                        1974    Indian Basketweaving: How to Weave Pomo, Yurok, Pima and Navajo Baskets.  Northland Press, Flagstaff, AZ.

An excellent how‑to guide.  Illustrated with clear photographs and discussion of construction techniques beginning with gathering and preparing materials and ending with finishing the rim.


O'Neale, L.M.

                                    1970 [1932]     Tradition in Karok and Yurok Basketry.  In The California Indians: A Source Book edited by R.F. Heizer and M. A. Whipple.  University of California Press, Berkeley, CA.  Originally published 1932, University of California Publications in Archaeology and Ethnology 32:1-184.

This work describes the preservation of traditional techniques, materials, and designs of the Karok and Yurok basketmakers.  The main method of traditional preservation is a feeling of what is right.  Innovation in not revered as an especially desirable trait, only as a sign of ignorance.  Instead of innovating, a weaver is respected if she can find an older design which has been somewhat neglected and revives the use or if she finds an attractive use of a traditional design in a striking color combination.  Furthermore, because of the long apprenticeship required to learn materials preparation, techniques, patterns, and forms, elders have sufficient time to inculcate a sense of tradition in the novice weaver.  It would seem that because prestige is a result of talented basketmaking, keeping within the bounds of tradition offers a quicker and more sure road to prestige within the community, thereby preserving the distinctiveness of Karok and Yurok baskets over time.


Ortiz, Beverly R.

                        1991    It Will Live Forever. Heydey Books, Berkeley, CA.

An excellent explanation of the relationship of basketry to acorns as a food source.  It describes the various functions of baskets in gathering, storing, winnowing, pounding, sifting, cooking and serving acorns.  It is richly illustrated and told by Bev Ortiz, an ethnologist from the San Francisco bay area who works as a park naturalist, ethnographic consultant and is currently working on her PhD in Anthropology at UC Berkeley.  She also frequently writes articles for News From Native California.

            1991/92           California Indian Basketweavers Gathering: A Special Report.  News

                                    From Native California 6(1):13-36. 

                        1992    Cahuilla Basketry.  News From Native California 6(2):6-7.

An excellent discussion of the work of the last Cahuilla basketmaker, Donna Largo, and the hardships and joys of basketmaking.  Describes selection and preparation of materials, as well as methods of working.  Describes the determination of Donna Largo not to let the art perish. 

                        1993    Contemporary California Indian Basket Weavers and the Environment.  In Before the Wilderness: Environmental Management by Native Californians.  Ballena Press, Menlo Park, CA.

                        1993    Pesticides and Basketry.  News From Native California 7(3):7-10.

Bev Ortiz discusses the problems with the resurgence of native basketmaking tackled by a coalition of basketmakers from northern California.  They are working to educate California Department of Transportation, United States Forest Service and lumber company officials about the damage done by modern methods of herbicide and pesticide spraying which are detrimental to basketmakers and the environment.

                                    1994-5 Kumeyaay Basketry: A Gift of the Past for the Present and Future.  News From Native California Winter, pp.  21-3.  


Owen, Roger C., James J. F. Deetz, and Anthony D. Fisher

                        1967    The North American Indians: A Sourcebook.  The Macmillan Company: Nerw York.

A collection of essays on the languages, customs, and beliefs of North Americna indigenous peoples by leading scholars like Kroeber, Wissler, Swadesh, Underhill, Willey, Steward, Lowie, and a host of others.


Patterson V. D.

                        1992    Indian Life in the City: A Glimpse of the Urban Experience of Pomo Women in the 1930s.  California History fall 71(3):402+.


Peri, David W., and Scott M. Patterson

                        1993    `The Basket is in the Roots, That's Where It Begins.'  In Before the Wilderness: Environmental Management by Native Californians.  Ballena Press, Menlo Park, CA.


Polanich, Judith K.

                        1979    California Indian Basketry: The Aesthetic Aspect.  Institute for Cultural Resources Monograph Series Mar 1:1-38.


Porter, Frank W., editor

                        1990    Introduction.  In The Art of Native American Basketry: A Living Legacy edited by F.W. Porter. Greenwood Press, Westport, Connecticut.

Frank Porter traces the development, changes in and collecting of North American Indian baskets from aboriginal to contemporary times.  He says prehistoric baskets found in caves in the Southwest created an interest in the aesthetic and artistic qualities of baskets.  He places early baskets in their cultural context.  He notes that the idea of basketry as art is really a western notion; basketmakers originally delighted in the execution of a beautiful useful object.  He describes the transition to basketmaking as a source of income for women forced into a cash economy, responding to the artificial demand for baskets created by the opening of the west by railroad and an increased demand caused by the "basket craze" noted by Dixon.  He cites the impact of manufactured goods arriving by rail, reduced gathering sites, and short cut techniques in weakening the demand for baskets and the subsequent efforts by various cultural institutions to encourage a return to the native art.  He seems optimistic about the future of Native American basketmaking contending that the forces which drove basketmaking historically are still driving forces, namely "the joy of the labor itself; pride of success; and a strengthened connection to community."

                        1990    A review of Native American Basketry: An Annotated Bibliography by Rodee M. E.  New Mexico Historical Review Jan 65(1):97‑98.


Powers, Stephen

1877    The Indians of California.  Contributions to North American Ethnology III Washington.


Purdy, Carl

            1901-02           The Pomo Indian Baskets and their Makers.  Out West Magazine

                                    15(6):438-449, 16(1): 8-19, 16(2): 150-158, 16(3):262-273.


Putman, F. W.

                        1906    Evidence of the Work of Man on Objects from Quaternary Caves in California.  American Anthropologist 8(2):229-35.


Ross, George

            1948    Lucy Telles, Basket Maker. Yosemite Nature Notes 26(4):69.


Rozaire, Charles Eugene

                        1957    Twined Weaving and Western North American Prehistory.  Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, Department of Anthropology, University of California, Los Angeles, CA.

Rozaire's dissertation is a complete survey of dry cave basketry of California and the Great Basin.  He very clearly documents every known twining technique found in these two areas.  He follows this with an analysis of the twined materials from San Nicolas Island.  These materials include basketry, cordage, skirts, pouches and bags, and miscellaneous items.  He compares San Nicolas objects with those from neighboring areas.  He then discusses the distribution of twining in the Great Basin, the Southwest and California.  He then looks at possible parallels with Oceania.  His interpretation of the data leads him to the conclusion that basketry spread north and westward from the Southwest, based on radiocarbon dating, techniques, and materials.  The result is twined weaving in northern and southern California.  The dissertation is amply illustrated with excellent sketches which included sketches of selvages.  The photographs of twined fabrics are of poor quality and do nothing to support his contention.

                        1977    Basketry of Western North America.  The Bowers Museum, Santa Ana, CA.

He says, "Basketry technology affords great insight into the historical and cultural relationships among groups both in the present as well as the past."  He then delivers the standard instructions for constructing twined, coiled and plaited baskets.  He offers a timeline for the introduction of different methods of basketry manufacture through our the Western US.


Rubin, A.

1991    A review of Art as Technology ‑ The Arts of Africa, Oceania, Native America and Southern California by Diane Fane.  African Arts Apr 24(2):20+.


Rust, H.N.

                        1906    A Puberty Ceremony of the Mission Indians.  American Anthropologist 8:28-32.


Sapir, E.

                        1910    Yana Texts.  University of California Publications in American Archaeology and Ethnology 9:1-235.


Sarris, Greg      Mable McKay: Weaving the Dream.  University of California Press, Berkeley, CA.


Saubel, Katherine Siva, and Anne Galloway

                        1977    I'isniyatam (Designs): A Cahuilla Word Book.  Malki Museum Press: Morongo Indian Reservation.

A brief outline with sketches of the more common Cahuilla basket patterns and their names.  Includes are flying geese, animal tracks at the pond edge, whirlwind, and twisted seed pod, rainbow, bats, and pine trees, among others.


Schumacher, Paul

                        1880    Method of Manufacture of Pottery and Baskets Among the Indians of Southern California.  Peabody Museum Annual Report 12(2):521-525.

Sennett-Walker, Beth

                        1985    The Panamint Basketry of Scotty's Castle.  American Indian Basketry 5(3):12-17.


Shinn, George Hazen

                        1941    Shoshonean Days: Recollections of a Residence of Five Years Among the Indians of Southern California, 1885 - 1889.  California, Glendale.

Although there is nothing in this volume regarding basketry, it offers a unique view of Cahuilla Indian life before the turn of the century.  It documents right-of-way agreements with the Southern Pacific Railroad and interactions between Cahuilla and non-Cahuilla people.


Shipek, Florence

                        1993    Kumeyaay Plant Husbandry: Fire, Water, and Erosion Control Systems.  In Before the Wilderness: Environmental Management by Native Californians.  Ballena Press, Menlo Park, CA.

Briefly discusses the burning, thinning, and transplanting of basketry materials.


Silva, Arthur M. and William C. Cain

1976    California Indian Basketry ‑ An Artistic Overview.  Cypress College, Cypress, CA.

This volume is the catalog for an exhibition, November 15 ‑ December 10, 1976, at Cypress College Fine Arts Gallery.  Using documentation from lenders and collectors, the authors provide consistent identification of materials and techniques, and less specific information about cultural context.  Most observations are based on observable qualities.  The major contribution of this catalog is the delineation of the various southern California culture groups, defining the limits of the "Mission" designation.  At the time of publication, Arthur M. Silva was an instructor at Fullerton College; William C. Cain was a geologist for the State of California and is identified in the catalog as a seasoned expert on California basketry.


Simpson, Richard

                        1985    Ooti, A Maidu Legacy. Sierra Heritage 18-31.


Slater, Eva

                        1985    Panamint Shoshone Basketry 1920 - 1940.  American Indian Basketry 5(3):18-20.


Smith, Gerald A. and Ruth Dee Simpson

                        1964    An Introduction to Basketry of the Contemporary San Bernardino County Museum.  San Bernardino County Museum, San Bernardino.

This pamphlet describes the basketmakers of San Bernardino County and documents their work in photographs and sketches.  It includes a Cahuilla basket‑form name glossary.  Simple descriptions of techniques and a cursory comparison of Panamint, Chemehuevi, Cahuilla and Serrano designs and materials are featured. A rather simplistic view of southern California life. Contains a short bibliography.

Smith, Lillian

                        1982    Three Inscribed Chumash Baskets with Designs From Spanish Colonial Coins.  American Indian Art 7:62-68.

Lillian Smith begins with a description of the influence of the Spanish on the Chumash, noting that the Chumash were among the first Native Californians brought under the control of the Mission system.  Basketmaking was among the labors performed by the Chumash to fund the ornamentation of the Missions.  While Chumash women adhered strictly to traditional materials and techniques, they were quick to incorporate designs such as those from the Spanish Globe and Pillar Dollar coins and naturalistic renderings of farm animals, as well as to adapt traditional forms to those more suited to European use.  Many of these baskets were commissioned as gifts and were personalized with a dedication in Spanish which included the name of the maker and the commissioner of the basket and the name of the recipient worked into the design of the basket, as in (translated) "Worked by the neophyte Juana Basilia desirous of contributing to the attentions paid by Señor Governor Sola to his industrious Field Marshall Don Jose de la Cruz."


Smith-Ferri, Sherrie

                        1993    Basketweaver, basket Collectors, and the Market: A Case Study of Josepha Dick.  Museum Anthropology 17(2):61-66.


Stewart, Julian

                        1973    Alfred Kroeber.  Columbia University Press, New York.


Stewart, Omar C.

                        1941    Culture Element Distributions, XVI: Northern Paiute.  University of California Anthropological Records 41(3):361-446.


Strong, William Duncan

1987    Aboriginal Society in Southern California.  Malki Museum Press, Morongo Indian Reservation.


Timbrook J.

                        1990    Ethnobotany of Chumash Indians, California, Based on Collections by Harrington, John P.  Economic Botany Apr‑Jun 44(2):236‑253.


Turnbaugh, Sarah Peabody and William A.

1986    Indian Baskets.  Shiffer Publishing, Ltd., West Chester, PA.

This extensive volume ably classifies the basketry of the North American continent north of Mexico.  The discussion of southern California basketry is limited to a few pages highlighting a handful of Cahuilla and Chumash baskets.  The designation "Mission" is not used.  As this volume is limited to a discussion of materials, design, and technique it sheds no light on the cultural context in which the baskets were made and collected.


Timbrook, Jan, John R. Johnson, and David D. Earle

                        1993    Vegetation Burning by the Chumash.  In Before the Wilderness: Environmental Management by Native Californians.  Ballena Press, Menlo Park, CA.


Vane, Sylvia Brakke and Lowell John Bean

1990  California Indians: Primary Resources.  Ballena Press, Menlo Park, CA.


Van Valkenburgh,

                        1952    We Found the Lost Cave of the San Martins.  Desert Magazine 15:5-8.

A brief description of the blue glass beads, 13th century Southwest pottery sherds, and basket fragments left behind by the Bowers expedition.  See also Bowers, Stephen.


Voegelin, Erminie (Wheeler)

                        1941    Culture Element Distributions, XX: Northeast California.  University of California Anthropological Records 47(2):47-252.


Watzler, Sandra

                        1984    A Family Album of Pomo Baskets.  Fiberarts 11(1):63-65.


Weber, Msgr Francis J.

                        1978    Chumash Indian Basketry at San Buenaventura. Ventura County Historical Society Quartlery 24(1):1-25.

Msgr. Weber discusses the attractiveness of Chumash baskets and the collecting of baskets destined for New Spain, Spain, Peru, London and Paris, and notes that one of the largest collections of Chumash baskets is in the British Museum.  He briefly discusses materials and techniques.  The baskets at the San Buenaventura Mission are documented as having been collected by Juan E. Camarillo (1867‑1936) and housed in a small museum he constructed in a wing adjacent to the church.


Weltfish, Gene

                        1930    Prehistoric North American Basketry Techniques and Modern Distributions.  American Anthropologist Jul-Sept 2(3):454-493.

                        1932a  Problems in the Studies of Ancient and Modern Basket-Making.  American Anthropologist 34(1):108-117.

Weltfish examines the materials and techniques of five types of prehistoric baskets: 1) Southwestern, 2) Ozark Bluff Dweller, 3) Lovelock, 4) California Cave (in the San Martin Mountains, north of Los Angeles), and 5) Snake River.  After careful analysis of materials and technique she looked for corollaries in modern basketry types.  Her conclusion is that all basketry types known in historic and modern examples were present in prehistoric examples.  Furthermore, all prehistoric types were made in historic times in the same regions where the prehistoric samples were found.

                        1932b  Preliminary Classification of Prehistoric Southwestern Basketry.  Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections 87(7):1-47.


Willoughby, Nona Christensen

                        1963    Division of Labor Among the Indians of California. In Reports of the University of California Archaeological Survey 60:7‑79.  Berkeley, CA.

Using ethnographic data in the form of culture element distributions, gathered by a host of researchers, Willoughby plots on maps and lists in tables the distribution of labor between men and women in aboriginal California.  Among the categories examined are division in labor in hunting, fishing, gathering, preparation and cooking of food, agricultural practices, crafts, and chiefs, shamans, and berdaches.  Much information is missing for many groups and there is no discussion of such labor categories as child care, and brief mention of water and wood hauling.  Likewise there seems to be no questioning of the source materials, as it is taken at face value and presented as valid.  However, information regarding basketmaking is clear and well documented.  Basketry was the specialty of women.  A few exceptions exist in specialty baskets used in fishing and as granaries or traps and snares.  Cradles were manufactured by both men and women in some areas.  In other areas they were made exclusively by men or women.


Wilson, Herbert Earl

                        1925    The Lore and the Lure of the Yosemite.  Schwabacher-Frey Stationery Co., San Francisco, CA.

The value of this little volume lies in the photograph of a pine-bough covered acorn granary with an unidentified woman, presumably Yosemite Miwok, seated in western dress on the ground at the base, and a brief description of seed preparation and the use of baskets.

Winther, Barbara

                        1985    Pomo Banded Baskets and Their Dau Marks.  American Indian Art 10(4):50-57.


Wissler, Clark

                        1914    Material Cultures of the North American Indians.  American Anthropologist n.s.(16):495‑503.

Clark Wissler offers a view of basketry which generates several questions.  Among these are the significance of the geographical environment as a continuity factor, the prime importance of historical elements as compared to motor and other functional elements, the significance of continuity in the distribution of a trait, the prevalence of diffusion, the origin and duration of specific material complex centers, and the relationship between Native American elements and those of other continents.  He believes that a thorough examination of the archaeological record can determine the answers to these questions, especially through the investigation of basketmaking techniques.


Zigmond, Maurice L.

                        1978    Kawaiisu Basketry.   Journal of California and Great Basin Anthropology 5(2):199-215.

                        1979    Gotlieb Adam Steiner and the G. A. Steiner Museum.  Journal of California and Great Basin Anthropology 1(2):322-330.

An account of the basket collecting habits of G. A. Steiner.  The article contains a short biography of Steiner and his connections with prominent dealers of Indian baskets at the turn of the century.  He would receive baskets on approval from up and down the West Coast and would make several buying trips to the west each year.  The Steiner basket collection housed in Pennsylvania contains baskets from more than seventy west coast groups from Seattle to San Diego.  Baskets from several "Mission" tribes represent the southern California basketmakers.