Lone Pine Nov 2016 Part 9
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Lone Pine Road Trip Nov 2016 Part 9
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Eastern California Museum, Independence, CA
Denture Made Of Coyote Teeth

Dentures on display at the Eastern California Museum in Independence, California. Coyote teeth were mounted in a plastic mold made from melted down toothbrush handles. The owner couldn't afford professionally made dentures; however, I don't see how he could do any serious mastication of crunchy seeds and nuts without grinding molars. Maybe he should have used herbivore teeth!

Ingenuity From The 19th Century: Binary Data Storage!

Ingenuity from the 19th century: Data storage disc on a hand crank Regina Music Box. Binary data (music) is stored as perforations. There are 2 data states: hole or no hole. Your computer stores binary data as zeros and ones.

Manzanar: Atrocious Treatment Of Americans

Greetings from Manzanar where more than 10,000 Japanese Americans and Japanese immigrants were interned based solely on their ethnicity. They endured deplorable living conditions in extremely harsh weather. Hopefully the United States will never again discriminate against people this way.

Osage Orange (Maclura pomifera) In Lone Pine

Lone Pine & Independence has many trees native to the midwestern and eastern United States. In fact, I once led a Tree & Shrub ID field trip to this lovely area.

Another very interesting member of the mulberry family is the osage orange (Maclura pomifera). Native to the midwestern and southeastern United States, this species is also known as the hedge apple because it was planted in thicket-like hedge rows before the advent of barbed wire fences. The fruit is neither an orange nor an apple, although it approaches the size of those fruits. Like the breadfruit and jackfruit, it is a true multiple fruit composed of numerous separate ovaries, each arising from a separate female flower. In fact, the bumpy surface of the fruit is due to the numerous, tightly-packed ovaries of the female flowers. The black hairs on the surface of the fruit are styles, each arising from a separate ovary. The wood of osage orange was highly prized by the Osage Indians of Arkansas and Missouri for bows. In fact, osage orange is stronger than oak (Quercus) and as tough as hickory (Carya), and is considered by archers to be one of the finest native North American woods for bows. In Arkansas, in the early 19th century, a good osage bow was worth a horse and a blanket. A yellow-orange dye is also extracted from the wood and is used as a substitute for fustic and aniline dyes in arts and industry.

Osage orange (Maclura pomifera), a native North American tree with multiple fruits that are similar in structure to the breadfruit and jackfruit. The bumpy surface of the fruit is due to many tightly-packed ovaries, each with separate styles that appear like black hairs.

See Wayne's Word Article About Hardwoods
  See Article About Fruits Of The Mulberry Family  

Western Hackberry (Celtis reticulata)

A rare western hackberry (Celtis reticulata) just west of the Eastern California Museum in Independence, California. This small relict population of trees once had a more widespread distribution. Other relict populations occur near Caliente (Kern County), north of Banning (San Bernardino County), and several isolated locations in the mountains of San Diego County. It also grows in Hackberry, Arizona!

Red Rock Canyon State Park (Just South Of Owens Valley)

Beautiful layers of colored sandstone.


I really love Owens Valley. I could live in this shack as long as I have a Wi-Fi connection!