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Botany 115 Letters To Students

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Botany 115

    i    Introductory Message #1
   ii    Introductory Message #2
   iii   Introductory Message #3
 #1a  Introduction & Exam URLs
 #1b  Retrieve Exams On Your Computer
 #1c  Brief Review Of Previous Messages
 #2    Finding Answers To Questions
 #3    Botany 115 Requirements
 #4    Reminder To All Students
 #5    Search Wayne's Word Off-line
 #6    Filling In Submission Forms
 #7    Printing Wayne's Word Pages
 #8    Exam 3 Chromosome Questions 
 #9    Important Links & Student ID # 
#10   Calculating Your Exam Grades 
#11   Evolution & Scientific Method 


i.  Introductory Message #1

This is a brief introductory message to see how many of my students have valid e-mail addresses, and exactly who I need to contact by phone. I have been holding off on sending out letters until the enrollment for this course stabilizes. There are still a number of students without e-mail addresses and 25 students on a wait list. After the first week, students without e-mail addresses will be replaced by students on the wait list. Because of the instability of the enrolment at this time, I have placed all of my formal letters on-line at the following address:

http://waynesword.palomar.edu/ls2exams/botletts.htm

If a student does not receive my letters or erases them accidentally, they can easily look them up again. My first official letter (Letter #1) contains a lot of important information and links, including the URLs for all five exams and submission forms. In fact, you might want to go to the above URL before the semester begins and read Letter #1 (and print it out). Another valuable site to read is the detailed course syllabus for Botany 115 On-Line at:

http://waynesword.palomar.edu/b15onlne.htm

I am not using Palomar's Blackboard program for on-line classes, so it is imperative that my students receive my e-mail messages and follow my directions for completing the five on-line exams. I set up my on-line classes before the college acquired Blackboard, and I simply do not want to switch over to that program at this time. I have officially retired from full-time teaching in the Life Sciences Department at Palomar College. This semester I am only teaching on-line Botany 115 and on-line Biology 101 as an adjunct (hourly) faculty member. Unfortunately, I no longer have an office or phone, so my only connection with my on-line students is e-mail. [In order to maintain an office you must be a full-time faculty member.] For this reason, I have tried to make the course very understandable for self motivated students.

If you need to contact me by e-mail, use my Cox Cable address, rather than my Palomar College or Cal State San Marcos e-mail address. Please indicate in the Subject Line whether you are enrolled in Botany 115 or Biology 101 since I am offering two different on-line courses this semester.

Send An E-Mail Message To Professor Armstrong:
If you are interested in finding out more about me or the Life Sciences Department, please visit my Life Science Home Page at:

http://waynesword.palomar.edu/armstron.htm

Each of the five required exams for this course has a Hint Page. I have tried to explain how to answer the most difficult questions, with important links to where you can find the answers in my large web site called Wayne's Word. There is no required textbook for this course. You can find all of the answers on Wayne's Word.

http://waynesword.palomar.edu/bot115.htm#hint

If you are using a dialup phone connection, some of my image-laden pages are very slow to load. I do have a CD available containing my entire on-line Wayne's Word website. I charge $20.00 for this CD, I just can't send it out free. With the CD you can work on the exams off-line; however, you must be on-line to submit the exam. If you have a slow computer or slow connection, you can also stop by the Palomar College library (or any library near you) and submit the exam on their fast computers.

Wayne's Word on a CD: http://waynesword.palomar.edu/b15onlne.htm#expedite

If you have some time before the semester begins, please read my Letter #1 and the course syllabus (see the URLs above). These two files should answer most of your questions. If not, send me an e-mail.

I have attempted to make this course academic and transferable to other colleges, but not so difficult and frustrating that everyone drops. The course is sort of like a game where you search for answers. If you follow the Hint Pages and read the recommended links, you should do very well in this course. Hopefully, you will also get a good overview of this fascinating subject. All the information that I have laboriously placed on the blackboard and whiteboard during the past 37 years is on Wayne's Word. This information and photos are not hidden behind a password protected program, such as Blackboard. Consequently, my material is peer reviewed by other professors throughout the world. In order to avoid copyright issues, Wayne's Word is registered with the U.S. Patent & Trademark office and all the images and illustrations are my own.

I access my e-mail daily and at least 2 or 3 times a week if I am out of the county, state or country. Like I stated above, this course is designed to be self-paced and completely on-line, with no on-campus classes. All of the exams are also on-line. Since the exams are essentially open-book, I made them a little harder and longer than my usual on-campus exams; however, all the answers are available on Wayne's Word if you follow the Hint Pages and go to the correct links. I will send out another letter in about a week.

P.S. If anyone wants to start on Exam #1 before the semester officially begins, please fill free to do so. The exam URLs are listed at the following URL:

http://waynesword.palomar.edu/ls2exams/botletts.htm#welcome1


ii.  Introductory Message #2

The fall semester begins next week, so you may start on Exam #1 any time.

Please read the Botany 115 On-Line course syllabus at:

http://waynesword.palomar.edu/b15onlne.htm

The syllabus explains in detail many aspects of the course, including grading policy, course content, how to submit exams on-line, hint pages, etc.

Also carefully read letter #1 at the following URL:

http://waynesword.palomar.edu/ls2exams/botletts.htm#welcome1

Letter #1 explains more details about the course and the URLs of all five exams and submission forms.

At the beginning of each semester there are always many students with invalid e-mail addresses or no e-mail address. When I send messages to the class, at least a dozen or more are returned to me. This is why I place my letters in html on the Botany 115 Letters Page at:

http://waynesword.palomar.edu/ls2exams/botletts.htm

When I finally hear from students without valid e-mail addresses, I simply refer them to my letters page.

I must admit that setting up my course with Blackboard at Palomar College would make the task of contacting all of my students a lot easier. I have chosen to run my course independently for the following reasons:

1. I am not relying on anyone for Blackboard Tech support. I set up my own exam submission forms which work with the excellent testing program at the University of Hawaii, available to teachers at the Discovery Channel's website (Discovery.com).

2. Since I do not rely on Blackboard, I can easily move my entire Wayne's Word website to another server anywhere in the country. Since I am no longer a full-time teacher at Palomar College, I am at the mercy of the current administration regarding the future of Wayne's Word.

3. All of my material on Wayne's Word is open to anyone in the world. It is not password protected behind Blackboard. Consequently, it gets peer-reviewed by other college and university professors, so I feel very confident about its content. This is very important, especially to maintain academic transferability with other colleges and universities.

4. Since most of my time and energy goes into maintaining and updating the material on Wayne's Word, I have tried to minimize the amount of student contact through e-mail and chat sessions. I agree that this method is not for everyone, but if you read the material and answer all the questions, you will learn a lot of fascinating information about plants and people. The information is based on 37 years of teaching experience in this discipline. In addition, you can easily fit this course into your busy schedule and work at your own pace.

5. Another reason for limiting student contact through e-mail is the high enrollments of Botany 115 and Biology 101 On-line. I currently have about 90 students enrolled in these two courses, with 50 people on the waiting list. Since these courses are completely on-line, I have students from as far away as Canada, the Hawaiian Islands and the eastern United States. The greatest limitation to out-of-state students is the high tuition fee.

I hope this letter has helped to explain the philosophy of this course.


i.  Introductory Message #3

Several students have asked where to find the exams. I don't have any direct links to the exams because I don't want people outside of the class accessing them. Since I am not using Blackboard, my site is not password protected. It is open to potentially anyone on the surface of this planet. I tried a password on Palomar's server, but it locks everyone out after 5 (10?) wrong attempts to access it. Then I need to call the server technicians and have them reset it. With a class of 30 students, 5-10 incorrect attempts is very likely. So it is just too much of a hassle using a password. Therefore, I simply assign URLs that I can easily change. To access the exams please go to the following link:

http://waynesword.palomar.edu/ls2exams/botletts.htm

Then choose Letter #1 Exams & URLS:

http://waynesword.palomar.edu/ls2exams/botletts.htm#welcome2

Scroll doen to the URL for Exam #1. Simply cut and paste (or type) this URL into the address line of your browser. Press enter and Exam #1 should appear on your screen. This is a little awkword, but I don't want to place any direct links to the exams or submission forms.

By the way, all of my letters that I send out to students are on-line. During this unstable enrollment period, some students may not receive my letters because of an invalid e-mail address. They can easily be accessed at the following URL:

http://waynesword.palomar.edu/ls2exams/botletts.htm


Letter #1a: Introduction & Exam URLs

Paste The URL Of This Letter Into The Favorites Menu Of Your Browser

Welcome to Botany 115 (Plants and People). This is my first message about the course. The message is rather long, but I think it covers everything. I still have a few students without e-mail addresses, and some additional invalid e-mail addresses. I will replace these students with new students as soon as permission codes are available. Until the enrollment stabilizes, I have been reluctant to send out too much information.

Botany 115 is a course about the fascinating world of plants and how they are useful in our lives. It is essentially an introduction to economic botany, a course that is typically taught at the upper division level in some universities. Botany 115 (3 semester units) is transferable to most colleges and universities as a lower division, natural science (non-laboratory) elective. Since its inception at Palomar College, Botany 115 has been called Humanistic Botany, Plants and Man, and finally Plants and People. The latter title is more politically correct and seems to be more acceptable to other institutions as a transfer course. At this time, there are no laboratory courses offered on-line in the Life Sciences Department at Palomar College. The dilemma of how to offer a "hands on" botany/biology laboratory course over the Internet is currently being debated in the Life Sciences Department at Palomar College and in other colleges across the country. I am also offering a non-laboratory, general biology lecture course (Biology 101) over the Internet.

Botany 115 on-line is based on my Botany 115 course that I have taught for many years in the Life Sciences Department at Palomar College. The course syllabus contains answers to many of your questions, such as course requirements, reading assignments, grading policy, etc:

http://waynesword.palomar.edu/b15onlne.htm

Please print it out and read it carefully. This is truly an on-line course with no orientation sessions or meetings on the campus of Palomar College. All exams are taken on-line, unlike other "on-line" courses that require proctored exams administered on campus. Students are expected to work independently on the exams according to the schedule outlined in the course syllabus. The course is completely embedded within Wayne's Word (waynes-word.com), an on-line textbook of natural history:

http://waynesword.palomar.edu/

You can also get to my home page at:

http://www.waynes-word.com

If you leave out the hyphen, you will get a Wayne's Word realtor. I have officially registered my name Wayne's Word with an R inside a circle, but apparently other people don't recognize registered trademarks!

During the past three years Wayne's Word has grown so much that it should probably be called an on-line pictorial encyclopedia of natural history. At the top of each page in Wayne's Word are colored tabs, including an Index tab and a Botany tab. The Index page includes an extensive alphabetical list of hyperlinked subjects, while the Botany tab includes all the important links for Botany 115, such as the course syllabus, reading assignments, on-line exams, grade lookup, etc. Important links for Botany 110 (Identification of Spring Wildflowers) are also listed under the Botany tab. I have a similar tab for my Biology 101 course at Palomar College.

The numerous articles in Wayne's Word contain all of the answers to the five exams. It is up to each student to find the answers by following the reading schedule outlined in the course syllabus. You may also use the extensive index and on-line search tab to find specific terms. Another useful page for finding information (particularly for Exam #4) is "Economically Important Plant Families:"

http://waynesword.palomar.edu/econpls.htm

Suggestions on how to locate the answers to exam questions are discussed in the course syllabus. In fact, all the lecture notes that I have laboriously placed on chalk boards and white boards over the years are now on Wayne's Word. For example, "Chemical Compounds of Living Systems" came from 200 pages of notes that used to take me about one month to cover during my regular lecture class:

http://waynesword.palomar.edu/chemid1.htm

Now, I have completely summarized these notes and placed them on-line, with numerous links to color images of representative plants. When you read about the opium poppy or curare, you can click on a photo link and see these plants in color. I now have more than 3000 color images on-line and this number is growing daily. All the on-line exams are essentially take-home exams like the ones I have been using in my traditional Botany 115, except they are longer, more carefully written, and more complete. They also contain more choices (26 per question) to reduce the possibility of lucky guessing.

For each of the five on-line exams I have prepared a Hint Page. The Hint Pages are listed under Botany 115 by clicking on the Botany tab. They contain helpful hints for difficult questions and links to pertinent pages of information and photos on Wayne's Word. I started using the Hint Pages after my first on-line class, and they seemed to help the students a lot. At least I didn't get as many e-mail messages from frustrated students when I began using them. Now I have Hint Pages for all exams except #4 which is essentially involves looking up plants on my Economically Important Plant Families page. When someone finds an error or a confusing question, I summarize my answer on the Hint Page for that exam, so that everyone can receive this information. With 90+ students, answering individual e-mail messages can be very time consuming. There is no way that I can adequately answer the volume of individual messages generated by this number of students. So the Hint Pages will be vital to understanding confusing exam questions. I am continually updating the Hint Pages and I will notify you of major updates during the semester. IF YOU ARE SHORT ON TIME, USE THE HINT PAGES!

Hint Pages: http://waynesword.palomar.edu/bot115.htm#hint

The five exams and submission forms are located at different URLs. I originally placed the exams in a password protected directory, but this proved to be very inconvenient because the server repeatedly locked students out after a certain number of failed login attempts. At the end of this paragraph is a list of the URLs. Please keep this list (along with the fall deadline dates listed in the course syllabus) in a convenient place because you will need to refer to them often. As I stated in the course syllabus, you should print out the exam, either the html version or the pdf version. Use the exam as a worksheet and write the correct letter choice for each question on the hard copy of the exam. When you finish the exam (hopefully within 3 weeks per exam), go on-line and bring up the corresponding submission form for that exam and enter the correct letter in the box for each question. Fill in the information at the bottom of the form, and click on the submission button. The following are URLs for the five on-line exams and corresponding on-line submission forms. Make sure you type in the URLs very carefully because I have different versions of these exams with slightly different file names.

URLs Of Five Botany 115 On-Line Exams:

Note: The l in ls2exams is an L. The l in ex1ats01.htm is a one.

These links have not been made active because they are changed frequently.

Exam #1 Survey Of The 5 Kingdoms Of Life:
http://waynesword.palomar.edu/ls2exams/ex1ats01.htm

Exam #2: Plant Chemistry & Economic Products:
http://waynesword.palomar.edu/ls2exams/ex2ats01.htm

Exam #3 Supermarket Botany & Plant Genetics:
http://waynesword.palomar.edu/ls2exams/ex3ats01.htm

Exam #4 Economically Important Plant Families:
http://waynesword.palomar.edu/ls2exams/ex4bts01.htm

Exam #5: Wood, Wood Products and Plant Fibers:
http://waynesword.palomar.edu/ls2exams/ex5ats01.htm


URLs Of Five Botany 115 Exam Submission Forms:

Exam #1 Survey Of The 5 Kingdoms Of Life:
http://waynesword.palomar.edu/ls2exams/ex1aan01.htm

Exam #2 Plant Chemistry & Economic Products:
http://waynesword.palomar.edu/ls2exams/ex2aan01.htm

Exam #3 Supermarket Botany & Plant Genetics:
http://waynesword.palomar.edu/ls2exams/ex3aan01.htm

Exam #4: Economically Important Plant Families:
http://waynesword.palomar.edu/ls2exams/ex4ban01.htm

Exam #5: Wood, Wood Products and Plant Fibers:
http://waynesword.palomar.edu/ls2exams/ex5aan01.htm

Fall & Spring Semester Exam Deadline Dates:

http://waynesword.palomar.edu/b15onlne.htm#deadline

For obvious reasons I will not return the corrected answer forms to students. It is very time consuming to set up different exams with different answer forms for each semester; however, I have made numerous and significant changes on my exam choices and answer keys since last semester's class. If you have questions about specific questions, send me an e-mail message or make an appointment to see me at Palomar College.

This course does not have chat sessions and requires very little interaction with the instructor through e-mail. The main requirement for the student is to complete the five on-line exams. Answers to the questions can be found by reading the Wayne's Word articles (http://waynesword.palomar.edu) and searching through files for key words. Suggestions on how to find the answers more efficiently are discussed in the course syllabus. I have spent literally thousands of hours putting all this information and images on Wayne's Word. I am still uploading additional information that is pertinent to the exam questions. Since Wayne's Word is open to everyone on the Internet (including college professors and botanists), it is essentially being "peer reviewed" and updated continually. In fact, it has become a very popular site with links from all the major search engines--including "Ask Jeeves" and "Google."

There is no required textbook in this course because everything you need to answer the exam questions is on Wayne's Word. Searching through the Wayne's Word hyperlinks is a lot easier and more efficient than looking up information in a textbook. If you really want to purchase a textbook, a recommended text is listed in the course syllabus.

After some deliberation I have decided to make a CD of all the Wayne's Word html and image files available to students enrolled in Botany 115. This is explained in more detail under item #11 in the course syllabus "How To Expedite The Completion Of On-Line Exams." If you are using a dialup modem to connect to the Internet, loading some of the image-laden Wayne's Word pages can be painfully slow. Opening these files off-line with your browser is considerably faster. Simply click on your browser and open the file 0index.htm on the CD. Now you should be able to navigate through all of the Wayne's Word files as though you have a fast Internet connection. Depending on the speed of your CD player, there may be a short delay in accessing files. I have tried a beta version CD on a number of different computers and it seems to work fine.

You can turn off the image display on your browser to speed up the loading time of Wayne's Word pages. In Windows Explorer click on Internet Options in the Tools Menu, and then click on the Advanced Tab. Scroll down to Multimedia and uncheck the "Show Pictures" Box. The pages will load much faster, but there will be blank spaces where the images would normally appear.

Newer versions of Internet Explorer (version 6.0 and above) will automatically save a Wayne's Word article (and all the associated images) to a designated folder on your hard drive. There are also some outstanding non-Microsoft browsers available for PCs and MACs. Depending on the browser, my JavaScript may or may not work properly, but this is not essential to the pages. To avoid long Internet page loads, articles listed in the Hint Page for a specific exam can easily be copied to your hard drive. You must first make a designated directory or folder to house these Wayne's Word files.

Open Windows Explorer and click on File--New--Folder. Type in a name for the folder, such as Wayne. Make sure the folder was created within your C: (root) directory, otherwise you might have trouble finding it. Now you can save your Wayne's Word pages to this folder. You can search through these files to find answers without connecting to the Internet. When you finish with an exam you can simply delete the files within the folder, or delete the entire folder.

When you open a Wayne's Word page while connected to the Internet, click on File--Save As--Save In. Just type in the name of your Wayne folder or find it by clicking on the down arrow and then click on C:. With your Wayne folder highlighted, click on Open and then click on Save. The article and all the associated image files will be automatically saved to the Wayne folder in your C: directory.

I hope these suggestions help to save you some time. They may also save you money, paper and toner cartridges if you are trying to print numerous Wayne's Word pages.

If you have a slow computer or difficulty in submitting exams (and you reside in the general area of northern San Diego County), you can stop by the Palomar College library (first floor) and submit your exams on one of the very fast computers available to students.

If you need to contact me by e-mail, use my Cox Cable address, rather than my Palomar College or Cal State San Marcos e-mail address. Please indicate in the Subject Line whether you are enrolled in Botany 115 or Biology 101 since I am offering two different on-line courses this semester.

Send An E-Mail Message To Professor Armstrong:
Since the genus Wolffia (a member of the duckweed family) includes the world's smallest flowering plants, and since Wolffia is my favorite research organism, I thought this would be the perfect name for my e-mail address!

See my duckweed family (Lemnaceae) home page at:

http://waynesword.palomar.edu/1wayindx.htm

There are certainly pros and cons in taking a course such as this on-line compared with a traditional lecture course on campus. I feel there is a real need for on-line courses, particularly for students who cannot fit a traditional lecture course into their busy schedules. The bottom line here is that you learn something about plants and their relationships with people, and that this experience is rewarding to your life. I have attempted to design the course so that it is not terribly difficult or frustrating. It really just involves looking up the answers to a lot of questions and hopefully learning something about plants and people in the process. Good luck.

P.S. I will place copies of all the general letters at the following URL:

http://waynesword.palomar.edu/ls2exams/botletts.htm


Letter #1b: Retrieving Exams On Your Computer

All letters sent out to students are at the following URL: Save this URL in your browser "favorites" or "bookmark."

http://waynesword.palomar.edu/ls2exams/botletts.htm

Scroll down to letter #1 to find the URLs of all exams and submission forms. Also save this URL in your browser "favorites" or "bookmark."

http://waynesword.palomar.edu/ls2exams/botletts.htm#welcome1

Cut and paste the full address of Exam #1 into your browser. For example the full address of Exam #1 is:

http://waynesword.palomar.edu/ls2exams/ex1ats01.htm

[Note: There are no hot links to exams--you must enter the exact URL.]

Print out the exam and write the answers to questions on your hard copy. In a few weeks transfer this information to your submission form.

[You can also print out a PDF version of the exam by clicking on the PDF icon at top of page.]

Repeat the above steps for the submission forms.

Additional note:

My system works fairly well, although it is quite unfamiliar if you have been using Blackboard. I am not using Palomar's system or their Microsoft monopoly software. I am not even using their e-mail system for my on-line classes. I have had too many problems with their e-mail system. I prefer my own system which is completely under my control. Your grades and exam scores are very safe with my bullet-proof spreadsheet!


Letter #1c: Brief Review Of Previous Messages

This is a brief note to let you know that I am finally getting the enrollment stabilized for this course. I must say that Palomar's Blackboard program is a lot easier for teachers at this time of the semester because address books and gradebooks are automatically set up for the instructor. With my system I must do all of this manually. I will not post an on-line spreadsheet until I am fairly certain about the final roster. This will be in about a week.

My course is completely independent from Palomar College's Blackboard and it is completely on-line with no on-campus meetings. I can easily operate it from practically anywhere. My program for grading exams is available to teachers through Discover.com and it works very well. If I finally decide that San Diego County is just too crowded, I can move virtually anywhere as long as there is Internet access.

My website Wayne's Word is essentially an on-line textbook. Everything you need to know is on Wayne's Word. The Hint Pages for each exam tell you where to find the answers. You do not need to purchase a textbook unless you really want one on your bookshelf.

Please do not be discouraged or stressed about this course. It is a painless way to complete a transferable natural science lecture course. The exams are long and somewhat difficult, but if they were short and easy, my Life Science colleagues would probably eliminate this course very quickly.

By the way, I have a tentative submission schedule for the 5 required exams; however, there is no penalty for late exams. The only exception is in May when all final grades must be submitted by me to Palomar College. I will give you the final submission deadline date later this semester.

http://waynesword.palomar.edu/b15onlne.htm#deadline

My next e-mail will contain sample questions and some free answers for Exam #1.


Letter #2: Finding Answers To Exam Questions

Here are a few suggestions on how to start on Exam #1. This is a survey of the kingdoms of life to get you acquainted with the tremendous diversity of plants (kingdom Plantae). I have also included the kingdom Monera (bacteria), kingdom Fungi (mushrooms) and kingdom Protista (algae), because these fascinating groups are also covered in general botany courses and have numerous uses by people.

If you have a busy life schedule, then I will suggest how to work on the exams with the least amount of hassle. In fact, you can make the completion of the five exams into a game. You can work on the exams in your spare time, but try to submit them by the suggested due dates in order to keep on task. If you simply can't finish an exam by the due date, then submit it after the due date ASAP. All exams must be turned in by the final due date because the grades must be submitted to Palomar College.

http://waynesword.palomar.edu/b15onlne.htm#deadline

Be sure to print out the exam and write the correct answer choices on the hard copy. When the exam is finished, just transfer the correct answers to the submission form and click on the submit button. You might also want to print out the Hint Page for the exam you are working on because it gives a lot of hints and important links for that particular exam. If your printer doesn't print out the exam correctly, then try the Adobe PDF version. You need Acrobat Reader (a free download) to view the exam in the PDF format. Most of the answers to Exam #1 can be found at:

http://waynesword.palomar.edu/trmar99.htm

Lets try the first question on Exam #1:

Question #1: Here I want to know the division of seed plants characterized by jointed stems with small scale-like leaves and spore-bearing cones at the nodes. There are 26 choices under Part I. You can use the same choice more than once.

There are several ways to find this answer:

1. Read the Divisions of Life Page at:

http://waynesword.palomar.edu/trmar99.htm

2. If you are short on time or simply cannot find the answer, just type in Cntrol-Find or Cntrol-F and type in a key word, such as "jointed." This should take you to the division (Sphenophyta); however, the question wants a true seed plant and the Sphenophyta (horsetails) only produce spores. A second search for "jointed" would have taken you to the division Gnetophyta (Mormon tea) which fits the question perfectly.

3. If you are lucky enough to have a fast (wide band width) connection, try the SEARCH tab at the upper right of Wayne's Word pages. With some practice, there are ways to limit your search to very small categories on Wayne's Word.


Question #2: Division of fungi composed of coenocytic hyphae. Coenocytic refers to fungal filaments without cross walls or septa. Under high magnification they resemble minute tubes containing many nuclei. They are not composed of individual nucleated cells like most plants and animals. There are 26 choices under Part I. You can use the same choice more than once.

There are several ways to find this answer:

1. Go to the Hint Page for Exam #1 at:

http://waynesword.palomar.edu/exm1hint.htm

The Hint Page for Exam #1 has links to all the pages on Wayne's Word with answers to questions on Exam #1. Most of the answers can be found on the Divisions of Life Page at:

http://waynesword.palomar.edu/trmar99.htm

You can simply read about the four major divisions under the Kingdom Fungi. You might want to print out this page because it contains a lot of the answers.

2. If you are short on time or simply cannot find the answer, just type in Cntrol-Find or Cntrol-F and type in a key word, such as "coenocytic." This should take you to the division Oomycota (water molds); however, the question wants black bread mold. A second search for "coenocytic" takes you to the division Zygomycota (coenocytic fungi) which fits the question perfectly.

3. You can also use the Search tab at the top right of Wayne's Word pages. If you type in "coenocytic," it will take you to all the places in Wayne's Word where this word is mentioned. The Search command works much faster on wide band width connections, such as DSL or Cable. The Palomar server is sometimes off-line, so the Search command may not always work.


Question #16: Class of fungi in which the spores are produced on a microscopic club-shaped structure called a basidium. The basidia are produced on fleshy structures that we typically associate with fungi, such as mushrooms, toadstools and the bizarre stinkhorn fungi that resemble an erect phallus emerging from the soil.

Read the Divisions of Life Page. Under the Kingdom Fungi there is a division of septate fungi (with cross walls or septa) which is subdivided into three classes. The class you want is the Basidiomycetes. If you have the time, take a look and some of the photo links. Some of these fungi are delicious, but don't eat them unless you really know your fungi because some species are very poisonous. The bad side effects are usually nausea and diarrhea, but there are a few species that can be fatal.


Question #22: Diversity of this division coincides in geologic time and geographical distribution with insects (Class Insecta). The Hint Page for Exam #1 gives a major clue for this question. I have included hints for questions that students had trouble with during the past few semesters.


Question #31: Name applied to regular bacteria within the Kingdom Monera, distinguished from cyanobacteria and archaebacteria. This question refers to a name of bacteria, but not the actual division. Referring to the Divisions of Life page, go to the Kingdom Monera. The regular bacteria are called eubacteria and they belong to the division Eubacteriophyta. Some questions refer to a specific division, some refer to a class, and some refer to the common name of a division.


Question #68: The term for a cell that does not contain a nucleus or membrane-bound organelles. The Hint Page for Exam #1 should lead you to a page called the Five Kingdoms Of Life:

http://waynesword.palomar.edu/trfeb98.htm

As you read this page, you can readily see that the Kingdom Monera contain "prokaryotic" cells which lack nuclei and membrane-bound organelles. Cells of the other four kingdoms are "eukaryotic" with nuclei and organelles such as chloroplasts and mitochondria. Ribosomes are organelles without an outer membrane that are found in both prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.

Note: The matching choices for question #68 are in Part II of the exam. It is best to print out the exam (either the html or the pdf version) and then write the answers on the hard copy. Work on the exam several hours per week, when you have some free time. When you have completed the exam, transfer all of the correct answer choices (letters) to the submission form and click on the submit button at the bottom. It is best to complete the submission form at one time. Your answer sheet will come to my e-mail address. I will save your submission file and transfer your score to my spreadsheet. In a few weeks I will post the results of the first exam on the Internet, according to the last four digits of your student ID number. Exam #2 and Exam #3 are the most difficult, but I have prepared fairly extensive Hint Pages for them.

Question #70: Prokaryotic organisms with RNA polymerase that resemble eukaryotic enzymes, and not typical RNA polymerase. The Hint Page for Exam #1 should lead you to a page called the Five Kingdoms Of Life:

http://waynesword.palomar.edu/trfeb98.htm

This question refers to a type of prokaryotic organism; therefore, it must be a type of bacteria in the Kingdom Monera.

http://waynesword.palomar.edu/trmar99.htm#monera

If you read through this section, you will come to the division Archaeobacteriophyta, also referred to as the "archaebacteria." To find out more specific information about this fascinating group, go to the link about Archaebacteria: Possible Life Form on Mars?

http://waynesword.palomar.edu/ploct97.htm

This article explains about the RNA polymerase of archaebacteria that resemble eukaryotic organisms (higher plants and animals). If you are short on time, just do a search (control-F) for RNA polyermerase on this page. These remarkable organisms of extreme environments are quite different from other bacteria. In fact, some authorities now recognize them as a separate superkingdom called the Archaea.


Letter #3: Botany 115 Course Requirements

Several students have expressed some confusion over this course and what is expected of them, so I am sending out another introductory message. I hope all of you are receiving my messages. There are still a few e-mail addresses that appear to be incorrect because the messages I send out are returned to me.

I am also placing copies of all the messages at the following URL. This is especially handy for students that did not receive my messages or joined the class after the messages were sent out. If you haven't received all the letters up to this point, please go to the following URL and read them. Better yet, print them out and keep them in a handy place for futher reference.

http://waynesword.palomar.edu/ls2exams/botletts.htm

This course does not have chat sessions or a lot of interaction with other students or the instructor. The majority of my time is spent on Wayne's Word, including the addition of new material and updating existing information. My web site is peer-reviewed by a lot of people over the internet, including other professors and naturalists from around the world, and it takes many hours per week to maintain it. My main objective is to make sure that the material is accurate and up-to-date. It would be nice if all my students could carefully read all of this material, but I realize that it is an overwhelming task. As you look up the answers for the five exams you will be exposed to a lot of this information and images, and hopefully you will learn something about the amazing world of plants and how they are used by people. The hint pages for each exam should help you in your search for the answers. When you are on the correct Wayne's Word pages, the Control-Find command should take you to the correct word or phrase. The Hint Page for Exam #1 is at:

http://waynesword.palomar.edu/exm1hint.htm

All of the Hint Pages for Botany 115 are listed at:

http://waynesword.palomar.edu/bot115.htm

Your primary objective for this course is to complete and submit the five exams. I realize that the exams are rather long; however, I am being carefully scrutinized by my colleagues in the Life Sciences Department. If I make the exams too easy, they would never allow this course to be offered completely on-line. Most of the Internet courses at Palomar College have proctored exams on campus. In my course, five detailed exams seems like a fair requirement for three semester units of a transferable natural science elective. If you can get through all five exams, then you certainly must have a relatively good acquaintance with the subject--certainly as good (or better) than my on-campus students. The suggested due dates are listed in the course syllabus at:

http://waynesword.palomar.edu/b15onlne.htm#deadline

After each of the five deadlines I will post a spreadsheet of all the scores for each student. The exam scores and percentages are displayed according to the last 4 digits of your student I.D. number. Numbers such as 0674 and 0054 are displayed as 674 and 54. With four digits there are 10,000 different possible numbers (10X10X10X10), so it is doubtful (but not impossible) that two students will have the same last 4 digits. If you do, I will find another way to distinguish your grades on the spreadsheet. The spreadsheet is generated on a DOS program called SuperWorks. It is an old program, but fairly bulletproof to viruses. I have been criticized for not using Excel, but I prefer to NOT be in sync. with Palomar College and the Microsoft Monopoly! If you didn't finish an exam by the deadline, your total points will be lower; however, a dramatically higher percentage will be reflected on the next spreadsheet when I have received your exam. If you don't complete your exam by the suggested deadline, don't worry. You will not be penalized. Just turn it in as soon as you can. The only critical deadline is the final deadline in December or May (depending on the fall or spring semester). I must submit the grades to Palomar College at this time. Each semester I will send out the exact day and time when all exams are due. This changes every semester, but it will be in December for the fall semester and May for the spring semester. The grade lookup table is at the following address. You can also get to it by clicking on the Botany Tab and scrolling down to "grade lookup" for Botany 115:

http://waynesword.palomar.edu/grlookup.htm#botany115

Simply click on your semester under Botany 115.

This course can actually be "fun" if you enjoy searching material for answers. There is really no pressure, just work on the exams when you have time. As I have said before, print out the exam and the important links that contain most of the answers. These are listed on the Hint Page for Exam #1:

http://waynesword.palomar.edu/exm1hint.htm

When you have answered all the questions on the hard copy of Exam #1, indicate the correct letter for each question number on the submission form, fill in the information at the bottom, and click on submit. I will receive your submission form and transfer your score to my spreadsheet.

If you have any questions, send me an e-mail message:

Send An E-Mail Message To Professor Armstrong:

Be sure to type Botany 115 in the subject line of your e-mail message. Have a great semester and please don't be stressed out over this class.


Letter #4: Reminder To All Students

I have placed a grade spreadsheet at the following URL. There is no rush on Exam #1; however, when exams are submitted I like to post them on-line at least twice a week or sooner.

http://waynesword.palomar.edu/bot15s05.htm

I will post a spreadsheet of all the scores for each student at least twice a week. The exam scores and percentages are displayed according to the last 4 digits of your student I.D. number. Numbers such as 0674 and 0054 are displayed as 674 and 54. With four digits there are 10,000 different possible numbers (10X10X10X10), so it is doubtful (but not impossible) that two students will have the same last 4 digits. If you do, I will find another way to distinguish your grades on the spreadsheet. The spreadsheet is generated on a DOS program called SuperWorks. It is an old program, but fairly bulletproof to viruses. I have been criticized for not using Excel, but I prefer to NOT be in sync. with Palomar College and the Microsoft Monopoly! If you didn't finish an exam by the deadline, your total points will be lower; however, a dramatically higher percentage will be reflected on the next spreadsheet when I have received your exam. If you don't complete your exam by the suggested deadline, don't worry. You will not be penalized. Just turn it in as soon as you can. The only critical deadline is the final deadline in December or May (depending on the fall or spring semester). I must submit the grades to Palomar College at this time. Each semester I will send out the exact day and time when all exams are due. This changes every semester, but it will be in December for the fall semester and May for the spring semester.

The grade scale and suggested deadlines are explained in detail in the course syllabus and in the paragraphs below the grade spreadsheet. Remember that I am using two grade scales: One based on the highest student and one based on the total points. That is why you see two percentages and two letter grades on the spreadsheet. You will receive the higher of the two grades (whichever percentage is higher). For example, if you receive a B based on the total points and an A based on the highest student, you will receive an A for your final grade in the course.

Just a reminder: I have placed all important letters sent out to students at the following URL. If you need to review exam URLs, submission form URLs, or other information, you can easily find this at:

http://waynesword.palomar.edu/ls2exams/botletts.htm

P.S. If anyone has not paid their fees, please do so ASAP because Palomar drops unpaid students.


Letter #5: How To Expedite Wayne's Word Searches

If you are using a dialup modem, it may take a lot of time if you are continually going on-line to look up information. In addition, the Palomar server is sometimes down (on weekends) for repairs and updating. In fact, your own service provider may be down occasionally. Please don't get discouraged because this is a very imperfect system. In my on-line syllabus for Botany 115, I have summarized ways to expedite the loading of Wayne's Word pages to search for answers. I have summarized these suggestions here:

1. If you have a high speed Internet Connection, such as a T-1 line, DSL or cable connection, you can easily look up words and information on-line using the Search Tab at the top of each Wayne's Word page.

2. If you are using a dialup modem through an ordinary telephone line, you might consider accessing Wayne's Word off-line from a CD. Using your browser, simply open 0index.htm on your CD, then navigate through Wayne's Word as though you have a high speed Internet connection. Information about where to purchase the CD is available in the course syllabus for Botany 115.

http://waynesword.palomar.edu/b15onlne.htm#expedite

3. Newer versions of Internet Explorer (or another browser) will automatically save a Wayne's Word article (and all the associated images) to a designated folder on your hard drive. To avoid long Internet page loads, articles listed in the Hint Page for a specific exam can easily be copied to your hard drive. You must first make a designated directory or folder to house these Wayne's Word files.

3A. Open Windows Explorer and click on File--New--Folder. Type in a name for the folder, such as Wayne. Make sure the folder was created within your C: (root) directory, otherwise you might have trouble finding it. Now you can save your Wayne's Word pages to this folder. You can search through these files to find answers without connecting to the Internet. When you finish with an exam you can simply delete the files within the folder, or delete the entire folder.

3B. When you open a Wayne's Word page while connected to the Internet, click on File--Save As--Save In. Just type in the name of your Wayne folder or find it by clicking on the down arrow and then click on C:. With your Wayne folder highlighted, click on Open and then click on Save. The article and all the associated image files will be automatically saved to the Wayne folder in your C: directory.

I hope these suggestions help to save you some time. They may also save you money, paper and toner cartridges if you are trying to print numerous Wayne's Word pages.

P.S. When you are looking up some word choices, it might be quicker to look them up in a good dictionary. For example, if you try Edit-Find on the word ester, it will flag all sorts of words containing ester, such as western, southwestern, cholesterol, etc. The answer I wanted was the general type of a chemical produced when an alcohol (such as glycerol) reacts with organic acids (such as fatty acids) to form triglycerides (fat molecules). You will eventually find this information in the files about the chemistry of oils (plmar99.htm and chemid1.htm), but you may need to go through a lot of other files containing the letters "ester" before you find the ester that is a fat molecule. Some of the Wayne's Word articles are fairly extensive and cover most of the questions on certain exams. For example, in the biochemistry sections of Exam #2, you may only need to have the files chemid1.htm and chemid2.htm open on your desktop. Similarly, for Exam #1 "Survey Of The Kingdoms Of Life," you may only need the files trfeb98.htm, trmar99.htm and trnov01.htm to be open.

I have prepared Hint Pages for the exams with difficult questions. The hint pages can be accessed at the Botany 115 Home Pages. It is strongly suggested that you print out these Hint Pages and use them with the corresponding exam. They contain valuable links, images, diagrams and all sorts of helpful suggestions to get you through the exams. The Hint Pages should alleviate some of the frustration trying to answer on-line questions in high-memory-load courses of this type with a maze of information spread throughout a massive web site.

http://waynesword.palomar.edu/bot115.htm#hint


Letter #6: How To Fill In The Submission Form

Be sure to write the correct letter choice for each question on a printed copy of every exam. Then transfer the letter choices to the submission form for the corresponding exam. It might be a good idea to also print out your completed submission form, just in case I don't receive it and you need to fill it in again. It is easier to fill in another blank form with a completed hard copy in front of you, rather than go through all the pages of the exam again. Once you are ready to submit an exam, you need to fill in the entire submission form. There is no way to do part of it and then finish it later. As I have stated before, this is an imperfect system; however, it is a relatively painless way to get through a transferable science class. Remember that the URLS for exams and submission forms are listed in Letter #1. There are no direct links to these pages.

http://waynesword.palomar.edu/ls2exams/botletts.htm#welcome1


Letter #7: Printing Out Wayne's Word Pages

I decided to set the width of my Wayne's Word pages so they display better on higher resolution monitors. Without width limitations, paragraphs extend too far across the monitor, making them difficult to read. The downside of this change is that printed pages may be missing a few letters at the end of each sentence. The only way to get around this problem is to cut and paste the Wayne Word pages into a blank Microsoft Word page (or Word Perfect page). Simply highlight all the paragraphs of a Wayne's Word page with your mouse. Press Control-C. Open Microsoft Word. Press Control-V. All of the paragraphs and images should appear in your Word document. Now you can print or save your Word document. You can even delete the images in Word so that only the text is printed. Simply right click on each image and select "cut." This uses up a lot less toner and pages.

Another suggestion is to remove (delete) the following opening table code from the top of the page:

First save the file to a Wayne subdirectory on your hard drive. With a text editor or with your browser, open the source code so that all of the html code appears. Then delete the first four lines of a table at the top of the page down to the HTML tag. Do not delete the HTML tag. This should allow your pages to print normally on most printers. The reason I have this opening table at the top of each page is to set the browser display width to 740 pixels. The paragraphs display much better, especially when using high resolution monitors.

See Letter #5 For Suggestions On Saving Files To Your Computer

One of the problems with printing out Wayne's Word pages is that it takes so much toner and paper that the cost can be more than a textbook. In fact, several years ago students in my on-campus Biology 100 asked if had a textbook for the course because they didn't want to print out all of the Wayne's Word pages; however, before I put the course on-line, students didn't want to buy the textbook because all the essential notes came from lecture. Now all the essential notes for the course are on my Wayne's Word pages. So, ideally it would be better to refer to the pages on your computer rather than printing them out. In addition, it is easier to find answers by looking up words under Control-Find or the Search Command. Remember that you must be connected on-line to use the search command. Pages that you use repeatedly, such as the Divisions of Life and Kingdoms of Life for Exam #1, and the Chemistry of Life Part 1 and Chemistry of Life Part 2 for Exam #2, should be saved to your computer.


Letter #8: Chromosome Questions In Exam #3

Questions 27-34:

The parental seed plant has AABBCCDD chromosomes. This must also be the chromosome complement of the seed coat of a seed from this parent. The egg cell and all the other haploid nuclei in the embryo sac must have ABCD. If the male pollen parent has aabbccdd, then the two haploid sperm within the pollen tube must be abcd. This is also the chromosome complement of the tube nucleus within the pollen tube. The embryo from these two parents must be ABCD + abcd = AaBbCcDd. Since one sperm and 2 polar nuclei (3 haploid nuclei) fuse together to make the endosperm of a seed (abcd + ABCD + ABCD) then the endosperm must be AAaBBbCCcDDd. The triploid endosperm has 3 sets of chromosomes: abcd + ABCD + ABCD. The diploid embryo has 2 sets: abcd + ABCD.

Each offspring from the two original parents will have the following genotype: AaBbCcDd. The offspring are capable of producing 16 different possible gametes (2X2X2X2 = 16). You simply place a 2 above each heterozygous gene pair (like Aa) and then multiply the 2's together.

Questions 35-40:

The pollen tube contains 12 chromosomes and 3 haploid nuclei, so each nucleus will have 4 chromosomes. If each sperm nucleus has 4 chromosomes, then the egg must also have 4 chromosomes and the diploid number for the plant must be 8. If the 2n number is 8 then the endosperm must have 12 chromosomes because it is triploid (3n). Each haploid nucleus (such as a polar nucleus) inside the embryo sac also have 4 chromosomes.

Question 41-47:

The embryo sac contains 32 chromosomes and 8 haploid nuclei, so each nucleus must contain 4 chromosomes. Therefore the egg cell has 4, the synergid cell has 4, etc. The endosperm mother cell has two nuclei so it contains a total of 8 chromosomes. There are 7 cells in the embryo sac, one of which (the endosperm mother cell) contains 2 nuclei. The egg cell, 2 synergid cells and 3 antipodal cells each contain one nucleus with 4 chromosomes.

Questions 48-51:

The radish parent has 18 chromosomes and the cabbage parent has 18 chromosomes. These are diploid parents, each with 2 sets of chromosomes. Their haploid sex cells have only one set of 9 chromosomes. Their offspring (called a rabbage) has 2 sets of chromosomes, one from the radish and one from the cabbage, a total of 18 chromosomes. This hybrid is sterile. A fertile, tetraploid rabbage has 2 sets of radish chromosomes and 2 sets of cabbage chromosomes, a total of 4 sets. With 4 sets of chromosomes, the tetraploid rabbage has a total of 4 x 9 = 36 chromosomes.

Questions 52-62:

These are matching questions. You need to see the suggested links in Hint Page #3 to find the answers: Grapes, Tomatoes, Watermelon, Radish, etc.

Questions 63-80:

These are questions about the amazing fig and fig wasp. Most of these are answered in the article about Calimyrna figs and sex determination in figs. See the links in Hint Page #3.

Watermelon Questions 75-80:

It might help if you have the watermelon checkerboard (on Hint Page #3) in front of you. On these problems there is no crossing over. I think getting into the probability of crossing over between genes on different chromosomes is going beyond the scope of this course. Dominant genes such as Large (L) can be shown as LL or Ll. Recessive genes such as small (l) must be shown as ll (two small letters).

#77. Large, striped, long watermelon containing few seeds:

You will need L_ for large, gg for striped, ss for long and ff for few. The problem here is that you can't have L_ and ff together without crossing over. In other words L & F always appear together and lf always appear together. There are no squares in the checkerboard with L and ff together. Therefore the answer is NO CHANCE.

#78. Large, green, short watermelon containing many seeds:

You need L_ for large, G_ for green, S_ for short and F for many. There are 3 squares in the checkerboard with this combination of genes:

LLFFGgSs (1/16) + LlFfGgSs (2/16) = 3/16

#79. Small, striped, short watermelon containing few seeds:

You need ll for small, gg for striped, S_ for short and ff for few. There is only one square in the checkerboard with this combination of genes:

llggSsff (1/16)

#80. Small, striped, long watermelon containing many seeds:

You need ll for small, gg for striped, ss for long and F_ for many. Since you can never have ll and F_ together without crossing over, there is NO CHANCE. None of the 16 squares in the checkerboard have ll and a F together.

Please don't get stressed over these questions. I only included a few of them to show how complicated plant genetics can be. The remaining two exams are a lot easier!


Letter #9: Important Links & Student ID Number

The following URLs contain messages and links already sent out to my students during the past two weeks. Please read them carefully. Messages #1 and #2 contain important introductory material. Message #3 contains URLs for exams and submission forms. Message #4 contains sample questions for Exam #1 and how to look up answers in Wayne's Word.

1. http://waynesword.palomar.edu/ls2exams/botletts.htm#introductory1
2. http://waynesword.palomar.edu/ls2exams/botletts.htm#introductory2
3. http://waynesword.palomar.edu/ls2exams/botletts.htm#welcome1
4. http://waynesword.palomar.edu/ls2exams/botletts.htm#exams

All Letters To Botany 115 Students: http://waynesword.palomar.edu/ls2exams/botletts.htm

Course Syllabus: http://waynesword.palomar.edu/b15onlne.htm

Hint Pages For Exams: http://waynesword.palomar.edu/bot115.htm#hint

Deadlines For Submission of Exams: http://waynesword.palomar.edu/b15onlne.htm#deadline

These are only tentative deadlines to keep everyone on task. The only critical date is the deadline for Exam #5. All 5 exams must be received by this date. I will send you the exact date later in the semester.

On-Line Spreadsheet For Your Letter Grade: http://waynesword.palomar.edu/grlookup.htm#botany115

Remember that there are two percentages on my spreadsheet. One is based on the total possible points and one is based on the total points of the highest student. You will receive a letter grade based on the higher of the two percentages. Believe it or not, some students do better when their grade is based on the total points, and some students do better when their grade is based on the highest student. In my many years of teaching, this system seems to work very well and has the fewest complaints from students. Note: I update my spreadsheets at least once a week during the semester.

If you are wondering about the 4 digit codes on the grade spreadsheet for this class, they are the last 4 digits of your 9 digit Palomar Student ID #, not your Social Security #.

If your # is 001234567, it appears as 4567 on the spreadsheet.
If your # is 000000567, it appears as 567 on the spreadsheet.
If your # is 000000067, it appears as 67 on the spreadsheet.
If you can't find your number, then I may have entered it incorrectly or you are not officially enrolled in the class.


Letter #10: Calculating Your Exam Grade Using 2 Grade Scales

Please don't be alarmed by the number of F's on the current spreadsheet. This spreadsheet includes all of the required exams for the semester. Some students have already submitted all of their exams and your percentage is now based on all of these required exams. As soon as your exams are received, your percentages and grades will improve drastically. In addition, I am quite certain that some of the F's are for students who are no longer enrolled in the course.

If you want to see your percentage for individual exams based on the highest student, simply divide your score by the highest score for that exam. This information is available at the bottom of the spreadsheet. If you want to see your percentage for individual exams based on the maximum points, simply divide your score by the maximum points for that exam. You can compare your percentage with the two grade scales displayed in the tables, one for the highest score and one for the maximum possible points.

Before I submit the final grades to Palomar College, I will choose the higher grade for you between these two grade scales. I am using two grade scales, one based on the highest student and one based on the total possible points. To set this up requires a fairly elaborate spreadsheet that doesn't work adequately with most computerized gradebook programs. In my experience, two grade scales are better than one, although it is a more complicated system to understand.

Letter #11: Treatment Of Evolution & The Scientific Method In This Course

Important topics such as evolution by means of natural selection are included within other major units of this course. I recently completed a separate Wayne's Word section about evolution, including the Atlanta school book controversy (Is Evolution a Fact or Theory?), intelligent design, the scientific method, and the origin of life (biopoiesis). It has been reviewed by a number of colleagues, including several that are deeply religious. I have been very careful to make the material accurate and without offending anyone's religious beliefs. Topics such as the definition of a scientific fact, hypothesis, law and theory are very complex and poorly understood, even by scientists. I hope all of you will take the time to read this section.

http://waynesword.palomar.edu/evolutio.htm


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